A map of the 4chan archipelago. Each pixel is 1.5km^2
A series of threads outlining a hypothetical situation in which anyone who has posted on 4chan in the last two weeks is teleported to a tropical island (corresponding to their most frequented board) with any equipment they can grab in ten minutes.
See Isle of /tg/ for more information
- 1 The OP
- 2 The Channel
- 3 Archipelago Features
- 4 Perks
- 5 Major Fauna of the Island
- 6 Major Flora
- 6.1 Cabbage Palm, Swamp Cabbage Palm -- Sabal Palmetto(edible)
- 6.2 Red Mulberry -- Morus rubra (edible)
- 6.3 Blackberry, Dewberry -- Rubus flagellaris(edible)
- 6.4 Purslane -- Portulaca oleracea(edible)
- 6.5 Winged Bean, Goa Bean(edible)
- 6.6 Barley(Edible)
- 6.7 Maize(Corn)(Edible)
- 6.8 Oats(Multi-use)
- 6.9 Rye(Edible)
- 6.10 Sorghum(Edible)
- 6.11 Wheat(Edible)
- 6.12 Cassava(Edible)
- 6.13 Sweet Potato(Edible)
- 6.14 Yam(Edible)
- 6.15 Banana(Multi-use)
- 6.16 Chickpea(Edible)
- 6.17 Great Northern Bean(Edible)
- 6.18 Lentil(Edible)
- 6.19 Sugarcane(Edible)
- 6.20 Tomato(Edible)
- 6.21 Cacao tree(Edible)
- 6.22 Artichoke(Edible)
- 6.23 Asparagus(Edible)
- 6.24 Aubergine(Edible)
- 6.25 Azuki bean(Edible)
- 6.26 Black-eyed pea(Edible)
- 6.27 Soybean(Edible)
- 6.28 Pea(Edible)
- 6.29 Broccoli(Edible)
- 6.30 Brussels sprout(Edible)
- 6.31 Peanut(Edible)
- 6.32 Tobacco(Multi-use)
- 6.33 Indigo(Multi-use)
- 6.34 Cotton(Multi-use)
- 6.35 Almond(Multi-use)
- 6.36 Macadamia(Edible)
- 6.37 Pecan(Edible)
- 6.38 Walnut(Edible)
- 6.39 Cashew(Edible)
- 6.40 Cannabis(Multi-use)
- 6.41 Rose
- 6.42 Lily(Edible)
- 6.43 Nelumbo(Edible)
- 6.44 Sunflower(Edible)
- 6.45 Petunia
- 6.46 Jasmine(Edible)
- 6.47 Tulip
- 6.48 Hibiscus
- 6.49 Dahlia
- 6.50 Narcissus
- 6.51 Violet
- 6.52 Edelweiss
- 6.53 Aspen(Timber)
- 6.54 Fig(Edible)
- 6.55 Beech(Timber)
- 6.56 Sweet Chestnut(Edible)
- 6.57 Eucalyptus(Multiple uses)
- 6.58 Fir(timber)
- 6.59 Mangrove
- 6.60 Maple(Multi-use)
- 6.61 Para rubber tree(Multi-use)
- 6.62 Spruce(Timber)
- 6.63 Willow(Timber)
- 6.64 Cabbage(Edible)
- 6.65 Cauliflower(Edible)
- 6.66 Basil(Edible)
- 6.67 Rosemary(Edible)
- 6.68 Salvia officinalis(Edible)
- 6.69 Parsley(Edible)
- 6.70 Oregano(Edible)
- 6.71 Coriander(Edible)
- 6.72 Lettuce(Edible)
- 6.73 Agaricus bisporus(Edible)
- 6.74 Okra(Edible)
- 6.75 Garlic(Edible)
- 6.76 Onion(Edible)
- 6.77 Chives(Edible)
- 6.78 Chili pepper(Edible)
- 6.79 Jalapeño(Edible)
- 6.80 Cayenne pepper(Edible)
- 6.81 Capsicum(Edible)
- 6.82 Beet(Edible)
- 6.83 Carrot(Edible)
- 6.84 Ginger(Edible)
- 6.85 Turnip(Edible)
- 6.86 Radish(Edible)
- 6.87 Wasabi(Edible)
- 6.88 Spinach(Edible)
- 6.89 Zucchini(Ebible)
- 6.90 Cucumber(Edible)
- 6.91 Pumpkin(Edible)
- 6.92 Taro(Edible)
- 6.93 Watercress(Edible)
- 6.94 Eleocharis dulcis(Edible)
- 6.95 Potato(edible)
- 6.96 Durian(Edible)
- 6.97 Apple(Edible)
- 6.98 Apricot(Edible)
- 6.99 Avocado(Edible)
- 6.100 Blackberry(Edible)
- 6.101 Bilberry(Edible)
- 6.102 Blueberry(Edible)
- 6.103 Cherry(Edible)
- 6.104 Date Palm(Multi-use)
- 6.105 Dragonfruit(Edible)
- 6.106 Gooseberry(Edible)
- 6.107 Grape(Edible)
- 6.108 Grapefruit(Edible)
- 6.109 Guava(Edible)
- 6.110 Huckleberry(Edible)
- 6.111 Kiwifruit(Edible)
- 6.112 Lemon(Edible)
- 6.113 Lime(Edible)
- 6.114 Mandarin orange(Edible)
- 6.115 Mango(Edible)
- 6.116 Cantaloupe(Edible)
- 6.117 Honeydew melon(Edible)
- 6.118 Watermelon(Edible)
- 6.119 Peach(Edible)
- 6.120 Pear(Edible)
- 6.121 Plum(Edible)
- 6.122 Pineapple(Edible)
- 6.123 Pomegranate(Edible)
- 6.124 Raspberry(Edible)
- 6.125 Carambola(Edible)
- 6.126 Garden strawberry(Edible)
- 6.127 Tangerine(Edible)
- 6.128 Rice(edible)
- 6.129 Job's tears, Coixseed, Adlay, Adlai(edible)
- 6.130 Green Ramie(textile)
- 6.131 Coconut Palm(multi-use)
- 6.132 Corchorus(multi-use)
- 6.133 Sea Grape, Hopwood, Horsewood -- Cocoloba Uvifera(multi-use)
- 6.134 Live Oak(multi-use)
- 6.135 Papaya(multiuse)
- 6.136 Nippa Palm(multiuse)
- 6.137 Chir Pine(multiuse)
- 6.138 Black Tupelo(multiuse)
- 6.139 Tamarack Larch(multiuse)
- 6.140 Millet(multiuse)
- 6.141 Amaranth, Pigweed(multiuse)
- 6.142 Wild carrot, Queen Anne's lace(multiuse)
- 6.143 Bamboo(multiuse)
- 6.144 Arrowroot(multiuse)
- 6.145 Flax(multiuse)
- 6.146 Papyrus(multiuse)
- 6.147 Slash Pine(Timber)
- 6.148 Chinese swamp Cypress(Timber)
- 6.149 Smooth tree ferns(timber)
- 7 Gods
- 8 Threads
- 9 Gallery
 The OP
Everyone on earth is killed except for the people who have been on 4chan in the last 2 weeks.
You are given the choice to go or kill yourself. Or in 10 minutes you are teleported to a tropical island populated by the other people of the board you frequent most often. The objects you are allowed to take are what you are wearing and holding, your weight is the maximum you can carry.
Other 4channers are alive and on different places of the archipelago.
The atmosphere is pristine and no resources have been depleted. The flora and fauna are Earthlike, with the exception that major extinctions have not happened and no plants or animals are domesticated. Raptors inhabit all of the islands.
Moot is dead, and we don't have means of communicating with other islands, with the exception of enough pre-made boats on each island to comfortably carry 1% of the population.
 The Channel
Due to increasing animosity on /tg/, a channel has been created at suptg. #4chan_Archipelago, for all-purpose discussion.
 Archipelago Features
 Solar panel caches
Suggested, but deemed unnecessary, entirely useful and a possibility; but all we really need to make electricity is a magnet and some copper wire, I have both sitting in my house. Not exactly a thousand jigawatts, but pretty damn easy to make on our own.
When your ten minutes are up, you teleport to the island of the board you frequent most. Since 4chan receives visitors from all around the world, some type of time zone correction could be employed for everyone to arrive at the same time. In addition, it has not yet been decided what time of day teleportation occurs, though the Archipelago would probably be in early morning/afternoon, to allow for shelters to be built while there is daylight.
 Carried Items
The general consensus is that your inventory cannot be so heavy that it prevents you from walking. Most of us could not, for example, carry a pickup truck, but could more easily handle a bicycle. All items you wish to take with you must be in contact with your body and unattached to anything else; backpacks, laptop cases, purses, etc. will be teleported. A clock attached to the wall will not be teleported, regardless of its weight. Any object exceeding the limitations of Embark will be left behind.
 Disease and aging
It's been suggested so far that people who have life-threatening diseases and conditions will be more or less miraculously cured upon entry, and traps and /t/rans/g/endereds will receive free sex changes to correct the unreasonably large Male:female ratio. Nothing has been said about aging, so it is currently assumed islanders will continue to age normally.
 The Leveling
The main (and perhaps only) alteration occurs during teleport. Conditions such as Diabetes and Cardiac arrhythmia, which can have a large negative effect on a human's ability to survive, are cured outright. Any corrective devices, such as pacemakers, are removed. Missing limbs, digits, and organs are replaced, and function at an "average" level. Major inherited diseases, such as Hemophilia, are also cured, though this may not be readily apparent in some cases.
The basic idea behind The Leveling is to give every inhabitant of the island a fighting chance to survive, free from debilitating conditions and injuries that impaired them in the Old World. It could be seen as grossly unfair to take, say, a Paraplegic, and stick them in an environment where the closest thing to a wheelchair ramp is a Wombat.
Each island has a very small cache of boats. These are the only way to get to the islands of other boards, as the distance is too great to swim. Islands in the sub-archipelagos associated with single boards are not generally outside of swimming range for particularly fit individuals. (But they may be, considering the immense size of the place)
 Size of the archipelago
The original proposed size was 10,000 square kilometers (for the entire map, seaspace included), but that is clearly too small to support the kind of population that these islands would have. A more recent proposed figure was 9,437,184km^2, which is more reasonable. This puts /tg/ at approximately 47,000 km^2. It also puts each pixel at approx 4.08 km a side.
This also puts the known world at a considerably smaller size than earth (about 200 times smaller) how/if this affects gravity or if there is more uncovered map/ridiculously large amounts of water have not been explored.
The New World is host only to prehistoric plant and animal life; species that have little need for deposits of iron or gold. The natural resources present are nearly untouched and ripe for the taking, and even though the planet seems to be firmly entrenched in various prehistoric eras, there is plenty oil. Whether the embarking humans will learn to be efficient stewards of their domain remains to be seen. It also seems these islands are mildly volcanic, which could mean geothermal energy and supplies of obsidian will be more readily available.
There are "perks" in this new world, unique to each island meant to aid survival or make life more bearable. These perks are meant to be minor survival aids, not meant to make everything easy mode. Therefore this such as power sources provided by the perk cannot be used for powering things besides the perk themselves. Also any buildings, ruins, or structures are usually home to some type of predator.
 /b/'s perk
/b/'s island has every biome type in places where it wouldn't make sense.
 /r9k/'s perk
/r9k/'s island being artificial and having a ruined tower.
 /diy/'s perk
/diy/ has a higher concentration of resources and more surface deposits of said resources.
 /ck/'s perk
/ck/ has a special selection of flora, basically the garden of Eden. Has 1.5 more predators per km^2 as other islands for balance.
 /tg/'s perk
/tg/ A few ruined and intact castles; chance of finding weapons and/or armor pieces from varying time periods inside. Additionally a massive intact and fully stocked but completely abandoned 40k style Hive-City exists somewhere on the island, there are no clues to its location.
 /k/'s perk
/k/ Abandoned, WWII style bunkers located near the beach. Small chance of finding ammunition and very small chance of getting vintage rifles, mostly nagants.
 /an/'s perk
/an/ domesticated animals are more common, wildlife is more docile than other islands
 /x/'s perk
/x/ Small, abandoned villages and creepy mansions, with various items found inside. Lots of mist and dark cloud cover. Inhabitants prone to paranoia and minor hallucinations.
 /mlp/'s perk
/mlp/ Horses are more common than other islands. Each inhabitant gets one horse dildo/fleshlight in a color of their choosing.
 /v/&/vg/'s perk
/v/,/vg/ A single, self powered super Gamestop exists somewhere in the island, stocked with thousands of games, and dozens of TVs and consoles, ready to play. Approximately 3% of all inhabitants are given a single, vague clue as to its location. (Alternate suggested was that 5-20% of all inhabitants spawn with their favorite hand held weapon from a vidya. Magical effects do not work if it was enchanted, however, it is remarkably well made. If it is a gun, ammunition supplies vary based on the use/power of the firearm. Any that relies on a nonexistent caliber will be refitted to use the closest existing match. Laser rifles are not allowed. As a tradeoff for this bonus, flora is more aggressive than other islands.)
 /Int/'s perk
/Int/ Inhabitants are all transported with a knowledge of a universal language and a secondary language of their choice
 /a/'s perk
/a/ Those spawned learn Japanese, 1 in every 15-30 spawn with a randomly chosen Japanese weapon such as a katana or kunai knife. Every inhabitant has a single manga volume of their choice. In addition, one half of all inhabitants start with a single random volume of the Naruto series. Somewhere on the island, there is a hut with a self powered DVD player and very large TV with hundreds of anime DVDs. No one knows about this hut, but it is in a relatively conspicuous area.
 /jp/'s perk
/jp/ Abandoned medieval Japanese forts and pagodas. May have some equipment like /tg/'s castles.
 /sci/'s perk
/sci/ there is a 1700's era chem lab stocked with a series of out-of-date science textbooks
 /mu/'s perk
/mu/ Everyone spawns with a random acoustic instrument and the knowledge to play it proficiently
 /d/'s perk
/d/ There are a few rundown brothels with various sex toys and items in them. There are monstergirls. The "worker's" give birth at a 2 to 1 female to male ratio and grow up to work in the brothels. No monster-girl armies. Any fetishes will exist in the brothel and be nonlethal such as vore,(ONLY IN THE BROTHELS). If any worker ever leaves the brothel they will turn to ash.
 /co/'s perk
/co/ Everyone spawns with a superhero mask of their choice. In addition, a large number of waterproof boxes have been scattered around the island, containing random western comics, both new and vintage. Somewhere on the island is an exact replica of the Daily Bugle, containing everything expected to be found in a newspaper building, plus one finely made Spiderman outfit. The Editor in Chief's desk is literally filled to the brim with fine cigars.
 /pol/'s perk
/pol/ has a map that mimics the other boards political boundaries. The map is in a perfect replica of Hitler's eagle's nest. A number of well kept Jewish synagogues are located around the island. Pigs or their equivalent are not located on this island.
 /o/'s perk
/o/ A number of various automobiles are scattered about, however they require varying amounts of repair before they can be used (A moped requires little work, a muscle car needs days of repair and replacement parts). There are paved roads across the island and a few gas stations around the island. Better ration that gas!
 /trv/'s perk
/trv/ A functional, self powered and operated monorail system can take users across the island, making routine stops at various locations.
 /vp/'s perk
/vp/ Animals are fiercer and larger than others, but their loyalty can be gained by beating them to submission (limit one per anon).
 /fit/'s perk
/fit/ fully stocked gym and supplement store
 /q/'s perk
/q/ access to satellites in orbit providing basic Google planet functionality
 /sp/'s perk
/sp/ An extremely large, well kept and self powered sports arena is located at the center of the island. There are a number of food stands, but their supply is limited.
 /tv/'s perk
/tv/ has a huge theater with an extensive film library of every entertainment show ever made (no discovery channel).
 /cgl/'s perk
/cgl/ has ruined villages. All the buildings are mostly demolished except for tailors/seamstresses. Those buildings may have a little high-quality fabrics and even the occasional loom or hand-powered sowing machine. Every anon receives one well tailored costume of the character they most often go as, armor is allowed. Powered armor is not. It must be the outfit of a pre-existing mass media character. Magical effects normally granted by these clothes are not allowed. Metal armor and components must be a common, preexisting material such as steel, not Adamantium or ceramite. Associated gear and accessories are allowed so long as the technology is within the realms of reality or can be adjusted to be one. For example, Snake's 1911 is allowed; a Spess Muhreen power sword is not, and would be plain metal.
Ammo for firearms is limited.
 /hr/'s perk
/hr/ gets high amounts of luxury flora/fauna (chocolate, caviar, etc.)
 /adv/'s perk
/adv/ Every anon has the voice of one person, real or not, of their choice in their head, who can console them and give them advice on what to do next. Regardless of voice chosen, it only has slightly above average thinking skills, but offers great emotional support.
 /toy/'s perk
/toy/ There are an exceedingly large number of abandoned shops, filled to the brim with various toys, both Eastern and Western.
 /lit/'s perk
/lit/ Various, extensive libraries are located throughout the island; their combined catalog includes almost every novel written, with each having most of the same catalog, but a few unique novels for each building. 1 in every 10 anons will start with a basic survival guide, however these types of books are not located in libraries and will be the only ones of their kind except for the guides that anons randomly get.
 /i/'s perk
/i/ Very well stocked art studios can be found throughout the island, and the local flora can be used to make paints. In addition to this, every anon's artistic ability increases tenfold.
 /ic/'s perk
/ic/ Large, marble statues criticize the inhabitants, letting them know what they did wrong when they fuck up. Also marble is abundant.
 /po/'s perk
/po/ has a large rudimentary paper mill
 /p/'s perk
/p/ everyone gets a Polaroid camera the never runs out of film or power. It cannot be used for anything other than taking pictures
(no using them as infinite energy sources.)
 /t/,/rs/,/w/,/wg/,/f/,/wsg/'s perk
Everyone gets a solar-powered PDA that cannot be used to power anything but itself and only sends and receive messages
 /r/'s perk
/r/ each person may make one request for an item they forgot to bring with them. it has to be something they can carry and if it is an electronic, it has to be one that they owned and simply forgot. (like my own laptop, but not a laptop loaded with survival guides or something). this item can otherwise be anything. You cannot make this request based on outside influence, such as you and a friend making a deal to request a gun and ammo for it. you only get 1 request.
 /n/'s perk
/n/ you have a choice of a mountain bike or a dirt bike with a full tank of gas.
 /fa/'s perk
/fa/ have ruined villages. all the buildings are mostly demolished except for tailors/seamstresses. those buildings may have a little high-quality fabrics and even the occasional loom or hand-powered sowing machine. Every anon receives one well tailored outfit or their choice. it will fit well and be totally FAAAABULOUS. You can pick survival clothing (like cold-weather clothes or whatever).
 /m/'s perk
/m/ They get a 25 foot tall, humanoid mech. Each requires one human pilot, however the controls are simple and easy to use. They have no weaponry save for one attachable drill fist. Though combat capable, they'd be better suited to heavy lifting than fighting. The battery lasts 1 hour, but requires 2 full days to recharge.
 /g/'s perk
/g/ They get one solar powered computer. the computer has cables and bluetooth so you can transfer all of your electronic information over to it. it cannot recharge
your devices. there is no internet access.
 /soc/'s perk
/soc/ The island is less hostile than the others. (but not completely harmless.) Everyone gets a walkie-talkie with a limited power supply.
 /c/'s perk
/c/ has a brothel similar to /d/ but it is run by kawaii cute girls. Any kawaii (or /c/ related) fetishes will exist in the brothel and be nonlethal (ONLY IN THE BROTHELS).
 /e/'s perk
/e/ has a brothel similar to /d/ but it specializes in ecchi fetishes. Any ecchi fetishes will exist in the brothel and be nonlethal
(ONLY IN THE BROTHELS).
 /h/'s perk
/h/ has a brothel similar to /d/ but it specializes in hentai, and has anime women. Any hentai fetishes will exist in the brothel and be nonlethal. (ONLY IN THE BROTHELS).
 /s/'s perk
/s/ has a "brothel" similar to /d/ full of incredibly attractive women. The women are classy though and will only have sex with people they like. Also the island has plenty of plants that act as natural contraceptives and aphrodisiacs.
 /u/'s perk
/u/ has a brothel similar to /d/ but it specializes in yuri. You will be transformed into a woman during your stay in the brothel. Any yuri fetishes will exist in the brothel and be nonlethal. (ONLY IN THE BROTHELS).
 /cm/'s perk
/cm/ has a brothel similar to /d/ but it is run by kawaii cute boys. any kawaii (or /c/ related) fetishes will exist in the brothel and be nonlethal (ONLY IN THE BROTHELS).
 /hm/'s perk
/hm/ has a "brothel" similar to /d/ full of incredibly attractive men. the men are classy though and will only have sex with people they like.
also the island has plenty of plants that act as natural contraceptives and aphrodisiacs.
 /y/'s perk
/y/ has a brothel similar to /d/ but it specializes in yaoi. You will be transformed into a man during your stay in the brothel. any yaoi fetishes will exist in the brothel and be nonlethal. (ONLY IN THE BROTHELS).
 /hc/'s perk
/hc/ has a brothel similar to /d/. The workers are really into hardcore shit. any hardcore fetishes will exist in
the brothel and be nonlethal. (ONLY IN THE BROTHELS).
 /gif/'s perk
/gif/ inhabitants have the ability to perfectly remember any particular 15 seconds for the rest of their lives. This ability has a ten minute "cooldown".
 /3/'s perk
/3/ inhabitants get a hologram projector to scare off predators (the dumb ones) and a solar powered computer on which to design the 3d models for the holograms
(perks last edited for grammar and wording by Kael on 8/16/2012)
 Major Fauna of the Island
The threat system:
A handy 1 to 10 scale created by a local anon, this system gives us a relative idea of how dangerous something is when encountered in a hostile context; or in general depending on the species. The difference is, at times, irrelevant.
1- Non-threatening; most often either a medium-sized fish or trilobite, or a small herbivore like a rabbit. 1-rated creatures are very squishy.
2- Might leave you scratched up if you really tick it off- a small wombat, for instance. Just whack it over the head until it stops.
3- Can give you a nasty gash or bite; perhaps a fully-grown wombat, or a small placoderm that thought you might be a tasty treat. The best method is to dispatch these is with a large, heavy object.
4- Be careful not to get too dinged up! You might wind up with a nasty gash or a broken bone if you are stupid about things. Some examples are a startled young moa, or very large wombat you tried to get too close to.
5- A possible threat if riled; the best example being the lovable Moa.
6- A fight one on one. If you're not caught by surprise, you should be able to take the beast. An example would be a solitary raptor or a lone, small terror bird.
7- Something surely scary to the individual, but not a major threat to a well prepared group. Velociraptors often fall into this range. Travel in groups and carry reliable weapons to avoid becoming lunch.
8- A creature that is hard to kill, but are often alone, and can be driven off. A Haast's eagle that's mistaken you for a moa or a deinonychus out in the open. Be ready for a hard fight, but don't give up.
9- A lethal threat; hard to fight and often an ambush predator. The largest of the sea scorpions and the dreaded pouch lion claim this rank. 9-rated creatures are very crunchy, but with a little teamwork and the proper tools, they can be dispatched.
10- The best thing to do in the face of a ten is steer clear. This is a beast not to be trifled with; these are animals in the order of Dunkleosteus. Not even a good, sturdy rifle blast would pose a real threat.
11- Hypothetical rating. Assigned to horrors that remain unseen, such as Deep Crows, and to the elusive Spinal Tapliphant.
 Cainotherium commune(1)
An incredibly odd little creature, the cainotherium is a member of the Ungulate group, though its size and build would suggest a closer relation to rabbits and other rodents. The giveaway is the hooves; this small, rabbit-like creature's feet end not in paws, but hooves. Its primary means of locomotion is like that of a rabbit, and it tends to browse the small tender shoots of low lying shrubs and grasses. When standing still, the animal looks a bit like a cross between a rabbit and a deer; its long back legs bent comfortably beneath it, and its small, narrow face filled mostly with large, alert eyes and long, jack rabbit like ears for cooling. Their primary habitat is fallen branches and tangles of undergrowth near bamboo stands.
A general lumping of multiple species that all come from the same evolutionary lines, Trilobites are armored, segmented creatures that come in a variety of sizes. The little buggers have proven to be an excellent food source for anyone on the coast and might serve as the basis for future fisheries. As it stands, trilobites are steadily becoming the basal species of many aquatic and shoreline ecologies. Filling in niches that many bottom feeders have on our old world. Many species also have limited mobility on land, and it is believed that some actually breed in tidal pools found along the shoreline. Thankfully, they pose little to no threat.
Ammonites are a of marine animals related to octopus, squid, and cuttlefish. Their name came from their spiral shape as their shells somewhat resemble tightly-coiled rams' horns. The largest specimens have a diameter of approximately 2.55 m. Many ammonoids live in the open water of the seas, rather than at the sea bottom. Many of them (such as Oxynoticeras) are good swimmers with flattened, discus-shaped, streamlined shells, although some ammonoids are less effective swimmers and are likely to be slow-swimming bottom-dwellers. The soft body of the creature occupies the largest segments of the shell at the end of the coil. The smaller earlier segments are walled off and the animal can maintain its buoyancy by filling them with gas. Thus the smaller sections of the coil float above the larger sections. They feed on plankton and smaller mollusks. Some escape predation by spraying ink and fleeing.
Leaellynasaura is a small orithopod dinosaur. Leaellynasauras are bipedal with big eyes. The eyes helped them see in the dark of the polar nights. Some family members watch out for predators, and call out loudly if one is seen, allowing the dinosaurs to flee. They are herbivores.
The Budgerigar is a very small species of parrot, closely related to Lories and Fig Parrots. Wild budgies are small, long-tailed, predominantly green and yellow birds with black scalloped markings on the wings and shoulders. They are social, traveling in large flocks, and they eat mostly vegetative matter and seeds, but do have a need to occasionally scavenge a bit of egg or meat. They love to eat millet, and spray millet is suggested as a treat for training pet budgies. Budgies are smart, cute, vocal, easy to domesticate, and are capable of repeating human speech like larger parrots; and as a bonus, they are also delicious. Female budgies have been known to lay unfertilized eggs for no apparent reason. Budgies can bite a human or scratch with their small talons, but would have a difficult time drawing blood.
Propalaeotherium is a prehistoric horse resembling somewhat a tapir. It has no hooves instead several small nail-like hooflets. They are herbivores and subsist on berries and leaves. It has four hooflets on its feet and is the size of a cat. They eat grapes that contain alcohol that can dull the little horse's senses.
They resemble the ants we have today but 50 times bigger. About the size of a large hummingbird.
 Cephalaspis ("Head Shield")(1)
Not a single species; rather a genus of fish that share a distinct set of characteristics. These fish range in size from as small as a goldfish to as large as a decent sized trout(a few inches to a foot or so in length). The tell-tale sign of this genus is the distinct large Bone 'shield' that is its head. These jawless fishes swim along the bottoms of lakes and slow moving streams eating detritus, worms, and algae while avoiding the various predators that would take it for a tasty snack. The worst thing these could give would be a bruise from thrashing around and hitting you with its head.
 Leptictidium ("Delicate Weasel")(1)
Leptictidium ("Delicate Weasel") is a small leptictid mammal that hops like kangaroos do, but is a placental (non-marsupial) mammal. Hopping aside, the front of a Leptictidium resembles elephant shrews or sengus. Just like them, it is a small animal less than a meter in height, and thus it is prey for various animals, such as Gastornis and Ambulocetus.
Iberomesornis is a small omnivorous bird. The wingspan is about twenty centimeters; its weight has been estimated at fifteen to twenty grams. It bears a single claw on each wing.
One of the most unexpected sights on the archipelago was the wombat. These little guys roam across the island foraging and avoiding predators. Nocturnal and often holed up inside of its burrow networks, wombats have been known to venture forth on days that are cool or overcast so as to avoid the heat of the day. Wombats are herbivores; their diet consists mostly of grasses, sedges, herbs, bark, and roots. Their incisor teeth somewhat resemble those of the placental rodents, being adapted for gnawing tough vegetation. Wombats have an extraordinarily slow metabolism, taking around 14 days to complete digestion, which aids their survival in arid conditions. They generally move slowly, and because of this are known for taking shortcuts, but when threatened they can reach up to 40 km/h (25 mph) and maintain that speed for up to 90 seconds. Wombats defend home territories centered on their burrows, and react aggressively to intruders. The Common Wombat occupies a range of up to 23 ha (57 acres), while the hairy-nosed species have much smaller ranges, of no more than 4 ha (9.9 acres). The wombat's primary defense is its toughened rear hide, with most of the posterior made of cartilage. This, combined with its lack of a meaningful tail, makes it difficult for any predator that follows the wombat into its tunnel to bite and injure its target. When attacked, wombats dive into a nearby tunnel, using their rump to block a pursuing attacker. Wombats may allow an intruder to force its head over their back and then use their powerful legs to crush the skull of the predator against the roof of the tunnel, or drive it off with two-legged 'donkey' kicks.
Anurognathus is a small pterosaur. They spend most of their lives on large herbivores. They live in an almost symbiotic relationship, in which Anurognathus cleans ticks off the animals hide, and animals on which pterosaurs live, gives protection and shelter to the small Anurognathus. It mostly feeds on small insects and fish. It has a 35 centimeter wingspan. And has a nine centimeter long body from head to toe.
Small primates with lemur like faces. Godinotia are about 30 cm long, excluding the tail, smaller than a domestic cat. They're nocturnal primates that help the Propaleotherium that graze with them from. They are omnivores.
 Sambar Deer(2)
Sambar (also sambur, sambhur, Tamil: Kadaththi maan, Assamese: Xor Pohu), is the common name for several large dark brown and maned Asian deer, particularly for the Indian species (Cervus unicolor), which attains a height of 40 to 63 in at the shoulder and may weigh as much as 1200 pounds, though more typically 357-574 pounds. The coat is dark brown with chestnut marks on the rump and underparts. The large, rugged antlers are typically rusine, the brow tines simple and the beams forked at the tip. In some specimens the antlers exceed 40 in. Sambars are primarily browsers that live in woodlands and feed mainly on coarse vegetation, grass, and herbs. They are diurnal animals who live in herds of 5-6 members, grazing on grass, sprigs, fruit and bamboo buds. A free ranging species, these animals are found across the island, wandering almost anywhere you could think to find them. They prefer to be near water sources and those often are a good tell-tale sign. A possible candidate for domestication, their antlers may prove useful and easy to harvest due to their yearly shedding. Oddly, few predators seek to take on a full grown animal. Most often they are taken out along the shore line by large sea scorpions and alligators, but sickly or injured animals have also been found to be a prey species for Pouch lions and raptors.
Peteinosaurus is a small pterosaur. It has a 60-cm. wingspan and mainly eats insects such as dragonflies.
 European honey bee(2)
The European honey bee or western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of bee. They produce honey, and have a painful sting.
A large(10-15 ft.) shark-like fish. This animal is well suited to hunting down shelled animals and breaking them open to get the prize inside. Swimming in the open ocean and along the coastlines, this large fish preys on ammonites and trilobites using an odd, circular pattern of teeth. This spiral of teeth is prized for its numerous small serrated bits, which can be used to create arrowheads. Given its preferred prey species, this large, imposing fish actually poses little threat. Short of getting hit by the serrated teeth when harvesting one, you should have no issue with them.
A Didelphodon is a small marsupial. It is about a meter in length and like most mammals it is an omnivore. Didelphodon fills the niche that foxes do. It both resembles a badger and lives in burrows as badgers do.
Apidium are small monkeys. The Apidium species are well adapted to life in tropical forests. The Apidium show an ability to run along branches and leap between trees. Males are much larger than females, and have large canine teeth. Its hind feet are particularly good at grasping branches, ensuring that it doesn't fall to the forest floor below, where predators might be waiting Unlike their nocturnal relatives, these primates are diurnal, using their keen eyesight to find ripe fruit and insects in the trees, which they then eat using their specially rounded and flattened teeth. Much of its walking time would have been spent in the search for food, and it may have had to wander over a wide area to satisfy its hunger. They live in small groups, where a small number of males have control over several females. The males fight one another over mating rights and for the ultimate right to control a particular group of female Apidium.
Tapirs are pig-like animals. They are dark brown in color, with low, erect manes running from the crown down the back of the neck. The Tapir can attain a body length of 5.9 to 8.2 feet, with a 2.0 to 3.9 inch short, stubby tail, and can grow to 600 pounds in weight. They stand somewhere between 2.5 to 3.5 ft at the shoulder. They are excellent swimmers and divers but also move quickly on land, even over rugged, mountainous terrain. Tapirs prefer to stay in the water to avoid land-based predators, and are known to run to water when startled. Due to their body size, a tapir could probably harm a human, but they very strongly prefer to run rather than fight. The species has a life span of 25 to 30 years.
 Mountain Goat(3)
An alpine species that prefers the tops of mountains and large hills to the forests and plains, the Mountain Goat grazes among the sparse vegetation at high elevations. Though they can weigh up to 300 pounds, most weigh about half that. Outside of mating season, the males form loose groups of twos and threes, while the females can be found in groups of 50 or more. Though they are not the most aggressive animals, Mountain Goats can be quite territorial, and will readily fight to protect their resources and their young. They are most vulnerable to large, flying animals, as their preferred elevation can only protect them from land-bound predators.
Rhamphorhynchus are small long-tailed pterosaur. It has needle-like teeth for striping bark to find insect larvae, but its main food is fish, just as in case of modern sea gulls. Its wing span was roughly 1.4 meters wide. They were very capable fliers. Rhamphorhynchus feeds mostly on fish, insects and their larvae, but they also appear to like horseshoe crab eggs. This modest-sized pterosaur is very successful.
The role of Rhamphorhynchus is like birds who live on sea coasts today: to clean the beach of carcasses of dead animals. Rhamphorhynchus measures 1.26 meters (4.1 ft) long with a wingspan of 1.81 m (5.9 ft).
Tapejaras are pterosaurs. These flying reptiles show wide diversity in size, some with a wingspan of 6 meters. The different species of tapejaras bear differently sized/shaped crests, used to signal and display for the other pterosaurs, much as modern toucans use their bright bills to signal to one another. Like the other pterodactylid pterosaurs, they lack teeth and eat fish and shellfish, caught in the marine shallows.
Muttaburrasaurus is a member of a large Iguanodont family. However, what makes Muttaburrasaurus special is that it lives in sub-polar rain forests. Unlike most of the Iguanodonts who prefer living in open regions or rare woodland regions, Muttaburrasaurus live in dense jungles, where its greenish-brown color makes it blended with environment. A fully grown and healthy adult has no natural predators. Like most Iguanodonts, this one can also move on two feet. One of most distinguishing features of this animal is an inflatable sack at the nasal region, which males use for sexual display during mating seasons. Most of eerie sounds of polar forests are from large herds of Muttaburrasaurus trampling across landscape. Muttaburrasaurus is about 8 meters (26 ft) and weighs around 2.8 metric tons (3.1 short tons). They are herbivores.
Ponies are small horses. There are many different breeds of ponies. Ponies are not baby horses and they stay small even as adults. A baby horse or pony is called a foal. These horses are raised around farms like other horses.
 Megaloceros(AKA Irish Elk)(5)
It is a deer with huge antlers also known as a giant or Irish elk not closely related to the modern moose, red deer, and wapiti, but was more closely related to the fallow deer. Eventually the final species with the 3.7 meter antler span has evolved making a permanent existence in the forest impossible causing the giant deer to migrate to the cold steppes and tundras. The Irish Elk stands about 2.1 meters (6.9 ft) tall at the shoulders and weighs 700 kg (1,500 lb) or more.
Torosaurus is related to Triceratops, but at about 6.5-8 meters (21-26 ft) in length and weighing an estimated 4 to 6 tonnes (4.4 to 6.6 tons), it is smaller and lighter. It is also rarer than Triceratops. However, It has one of the largest skulls of any land animal known, reaching 2.6 meters (8.5 ft) in length. They move in herds for protection. The males fight with their horns over females during mating season. Charging almost everything.
Chalicotherium is a Prehistoric animal. They are a type of giant ground sloth. Chalicotherium, like many members of Perissodactyla, are adapted to browsing, though uniquely adapted to do so among its ungulate relatives. Its arms are long and heavily clawed, allowing them to walk on their knuckles only. The arms are used to reach for high branches and bring them close to its short-faced head to strip them clean of leaves. The horse-like head itself shows adaptation to a diet of soft vegetation, since, as the animal reaches sexual maturity, the incisors and upper canines shed, suggesting that its muscular lips and the resulting gum pads are enough to crop fodder which was then processed by squarish, low-crowned molars. These animals sit on their haunches for extended periods of time while feeding.
Megatherium is a giant ground sloth. A member of the Xenarthran mammal family, it usually eats plants, but was also big and strong enough to eat carrion, not unlike the Arctodus bear of North America. It has armour-plated skin for defence and powerful clawed forelimbs for attack. Megatherium is one of the largest land mammals known, weighing up to 4 tones and up to 6 m (20 ft) in length from head to tail. It is the largest known ground sloth, as big as modern elephants.
Macrauchenia is a Prehistoric animal. Their noses are like Wind socks. Macrauchenia have a somewhat camel-like body, with sturdy legs, a long neck and a relatively small head. Its feet, however, more closely resemble those of a modern rhinoceros, and have three hoofs each. It is a relatively large animal, with a body length of around 3 meters (9.8 ft) and a weight up to 1042 kg. One striking characteristic of Macrauchenia is that, unlike most other mammals, the openings for nostrils on its skull are atop the head.
 Woolly Rhinoceros(5)
Woolly Rhinoceros is a companion, or at least a close neighbour, to the woolly mammoth. Just like the mammoth, it is clad in thick, reddish-brown fur that is longer on its neck and forequarters, perhaps forming a mane of sorts. It is no higher than 1.6 meters in the shoulders, but it is 3.5 meters in length, with an estimated weight of around 2,721–3,175 kg (6,000–7,000 lb). It lives on grasses and thus is a steppe, or rather a tundra animal, just like its close relative the Elasmotherium, which, however, lived further down south, and thus it didn't need to use its horn to sweep away snow to find food in winter, as the wooly rhinoceros did. It's a close relative of the modern rhino.
Ankylosaurus means "fused lizard". It defends itself by pressing itself into the ground. When the Meat eaters come to attack, it would do that or use his ball-like tail to hit any predators. Ankylosaurus is an ornithischian (bird-hipped) dinosaur related to Polacanthus, but at 9-11 meters in length and 6-7 tons it was more than twice as big, and is armed with a tail club formed of fused bone. Ankylosaurus is the largest of its kind. Ankylosaurus is a plant-eating dinosaur; its bony armour weighs it down so much that it feeds only on low-growing shrubbery and other vegetation. However, its legs are directly underneath its body, not sprawled out like a tortoise's, and when it was confronted with a predator, Ankylosaurus can move quickly enough. In addition, such formidable natural defenses mean that ankylosaurus does not need any serious brain power, and consequently its brain is quite small, even though the skull of this dinosaur is quite big and thick - even ankylosaurus's eyebrows are armoured for better protection.
Embolotheirum is a Brontothere, a prehistoric perissodactyl (odd-toed) mammal. Up to 2.5 m tall, it has a brain no bigger than an orange, and is not the brightest of beasts. It weighs around 2 tonnes and has a 70 cm. bony growth on its nose, the reason for its name, 'battering-ram beast'. It is a herbivore that feeds only on leaves of shrubs and bushes.
The largest (known) marsupial that ever lived. It resides, along with many other members, in a group of unusual species collectively called the Australian megafauna. They inhabit open forest, woodlands, and grasslands, possibly staying close to water, and eating leaves, shrubs and some grasses. The largest specimens were hippopotamus-sized: about 10 feet long from nose to tail, standing 6 ft 7 tall at the shoulder and weighing up to 6,142 pounds. Diprotodon superficially resembles a rhinoceros without a horn. Its feet turn inwards like a wombat’s, giving it a pigeon-toed appearance. It has strong claws on the front feet and its pouch opening faces backwards. Footprints of its feet have been found showing a covering of hair, which indicates it had a coat similar to a modern wombat. They are browsers on the largest order; treat these animals with respect and caution. They might prove to be a great food source if tamed, but they are also the Pouch lion's favorite prey, making them a hazard to hunt if you are not cautious.
Although it is relatively big, it is a very cautious creature. They are a type of ground sloth. Ancylotherium is a
territorial, but a timid creature, easily scared away even by a Humans' intimidation display. At two meters high at the shoulder and a weight of nearly 500 kg, Ancylotherium are relatively large, and built rather like a goat. Like other chalicotheres, it has long forelimbs and short hind limbs. However, unlike most other chalicotheres, it does not walk on its knuckles.
Indricotherium (also known as Baluchtherium and Paraceratherium) are a species of prehistoric mammal. Male indricotheres weigh 20 tons, females - 15 tons and newborn calves - around 250kg. They are roughly 4 - 4.5 meters tall and around 8 meters long. When an indricothere calf becomes three years old, its mother has to chase it away so that the female has no problem giving its next, unborn, calf the best chance to survive. They are herbivores. Indricotheres are so huge that they can go without food or water for days and it protects them from predators too. Calves are weaned off milk when about a year old. By the time indricotheres are 4 years old, they can defend themselves.
These are primitive elephants with a hair trigger temper. It has tusks under its lower jaw to strip bark off trees. These massive animals, are, however, much larger than any of their modern relatives. These mighty creatures stood at over 4.6-5 meters tall at the shoulder, and weighed in at hefty 14-15 tonnes in mature males.
Iguanodon is an ornitischian dinosaur related to Dryosaurus, and is the largest and most successful member of the iguanodont dinosaurs. In length, Iguanodon is up 9-12 meters long and weighs about 3.5 tons. It lives in herds alongside Polacanthus, an armored dinosaur. It uses its size, thumb spikes and communal life style to protect it from predators such as Utahraptor - it is better defended than some of its fellow herbivores, such as Anatotitan, who could only flee when attacked. Iguanodons also have specialized teeth for grinding up vegetation. The maximum speed of Iguanodon is estimated at 24 km/h (14.9 mph).
It resembles tapirs and hippos. The Moeritherium species were pig-like animals. They are smaller than modern elephants, standing only 70 centimeters (2.3 ft) high at the shoulder and are about 3 meters (9.8 ft) long. They wallow in swamps and rivers, filling the ecological niche now filled by the hippopotamus. They eat soft water vegetation.
Dorudon is a Prehistoric whale. Though it is smaller than Basilosaurus, it is very similar to it overall, and just like basilosaurus it is essentially an older, less advanced version of the modern whales. These are social animals and live in pods like dolphins. They feed on fish and mollusks with their razor sharp teeth. They were about five meters (16 ft) long.
Polacanthus is a herbivorous ornithischian dinosaur that grows 4 to 5 meters (13 to 16 ft) long. Like Ankylosaurus, Polacanthus has armour and spikes, but like other nodosaurids, it lacks a tail club. Instead, it had additional spikes on the sides of its body armour, giving it extra reach and protection against such predators as Utahraptor: when confronted by them, Polacanthus will face them front-on (unlike the Ankylosaurus, who turns sideways instead) and keep them away via its front spikes.
Cryptoclidus is estimated to weigh about 8 tons. Its head is rather flattened, with eyes facing upward. The skull is broad and light, with jaws lined with about a hundred long, fine teeth, ideal for catching fish and squid. The internal nares were set forward, and the nostrils were relatively small. At up to 8 meters (26 ft) long, Cryptoclidus was a medium-sized plesiosaur. It has a neck that is up to 2 meters (6.6 ft) long that does not seem to be very flexible. This probably keeps its bulky body away from its small head so as not to alarm potential prey. It has four broad paddle-shaped limbs, with which it either "flies" through the water in wave-like undulating movements, or swims like a porpoise by moving upwards on two flippers and gliding back down again on the other two. Due to their seal-like body plan, Cryptoclidus are amphibious animals instead of fully marine reptiles. Despite looking clumsy and cumbersome, in water it is relatively graceful, using all four limbs as paddles, to swim and hunt its prey. It lays eggs in sand. The fragile build of the head and teeth preclude any grappling with prey, so they enjoy a diet of small, soft-bodied animals such as squid and shoaling fish. Cryptoclidus uses its long, intermeshing teeth to strain small prey from the water, or sift through sediment for buried animals. The size and shape of the nares and nasal openings are used to sample seawater for smells and chemical traces.
Stegosaurus is a stegosaurid dinosaur, and one of the largest of its' kind, up to 10 m long and up to 3 tons in weight. On average, though, it is smaller, up to 9 m in length, and weighs 2-2.9 tons as well. It is a herbivore and is able to temporarily stand up on its hind legs to reach branches above its normal reach. A Stegosaurus's brain is really small for its overall body size - no bigger than a walnut, and that is why these dinosaurs have a secondary nervous center in their hips region, to better control the movement of their hind legs and formidable tail, which is armed with spikes up to 1.2 meters long. Stegosaurus lives in small herds.
Diplodocus is a 25 meter long, 25 tonne sauropod dinosaur. Diplodocus is one of the longest animals ever. Seismosaurus, a species of Diplodocus, is 33.7-53.9 meters long and 34 tonnes in weight. In fact, it is so large that even a pack of Allosaurus aren't able to hunt fully grown specimens (though Allosaurus can attack individuals which are weak, sick, old, injured and young). They live in huge herds, sometimes up to 100 Diplodocus, led by a matriarch, like elephants. Diplodocus have a long lifespan sometimes up to 120 years (it could be shorter lifespan if it is a warm-blooded animal like most dinosaurs). Diplodocus hatchlings eat 2-3 kilograms(4-6 pounds) per day, until they reach young adulthood. Diplodocus lives in a symbiotic relationship with a small pterosaur called Anurognathus who cleans off ticks and other parasites that live on skin of Diplodocus.
Doedicurus has spikes on its tail to defend itself, both to protect itself and in competition for females. Doedicurus looks very similar to the dinosaur Ankylosaurus but it is relatively smaller (the size of a small car) and with extra spikes on the tail for extra protection. It is a mammal. With a length of four meters and weight of 2 tons, Doedicurus is easily one of the larger members of the glyptodonts, armoured herbivores that are related to modern day armadillos.
 Woolly mammoth(5)
Woolly mammoths have a number of adaptations to the cold, most famously the thick layer of shaggy hair, up to 1 meter in length with a fine underwool, for which the woolly mammoth is named. The coats probably molted in summer to cool off, otherwise it will overheat and die. They also have far smaller ears than modern elephants. Other characteristic features included a high, peaked head that appears knob-like and a high shoulder hump resulting from long spines on the neck vertebrae that probably carried fat deposits. Fully grown mammoth bulls reach heights between 2.7 m (9 ft) and 3.2 m (10 ft) while the dwarf varieties reach between 1.8 m (5.9 ft) and 2.0 m (6.6 ft). Woolly mammoths have extremely long tusks — up to 5 m (16 ft) long — which are markedly curved. The Wooly Mammoth weigh 12000 - 20000 lbs.
Basilosaurus, just like Dorudon, is a prehistoric whale (Archaeocetii). It is around 20 meters in length with a skull approximately 1.5 meters long. Its' post-cranial skeleton resembles that of the modern whales, but it has nostrils rather than a blowhole, and its' ribcage indicates that it can't dive as deep as the modern whales can. It has saw edged teeth for catching fish.
Plateosaurs are dinosaurs reaching up to 10 meters. This animal lives in small groups from 5 to 20 Plateosaurus of this species.
Plateosaurus is mostly dark green with white stripes, probably to hide behind tall vegetation. Plateosaurus has a long neck to help him reach vegetation. It might have swallows smaller stones and rocks to help it digest food. Plateosaurus has a large claw on its thumb for defense against predators. Plateosaurus walks both on all fours and its hind legs.
Some of the largest herbivores on the Island, the Moa roam amongst the low-lying coastal forests and rocky foothills. They are challenged only by the might of the Haast's eagles that soar overhead. These ten foot tall ground birds are reasonably docile and roam in small herds or as solitary animals. They nest amongst rocky areas that have large quantities of pumice which they hollow out to form nesting sites. Not the brightest among birds, they are herbivorous, and so long as not overtly threatened will pose no great danger. Should you startle them, however, be ready for a kick that will make a horse's seem like a love-tap. There have been talks of domesticating these large birds, but it should be noted that unlike many animals we have tamed, they are not naturally large flock animals, instead traveling in small groups of two or three.
Ornitholestes is a small theropod dinosaur. Ornitholestes means "bird thief'; it feeds upon lizards and small mammals, occasionally stealing eggs from large dinosaurs. Ornitholestes stands at approximately 2.08 m (6.82 ft). It weighs 15 kg (33 lb).
Dromaeosaurus ("Running lizard") is a medium-sized theropod dinosaur, about 2m (6ft) long and 15kg (33lb) in weight. It is unique among dromaeosaurs as, unlike other medium-sized dromaeosaurs such as Velociraptor, it has a short, massive skull, deep mandible, and robust teeth, made for crushing and tearing meat. It has a very stiff tail, like all dromaeosaurs, and it has a huge, sickle-like claw on its second toe, most likely used to slash the throat of its prey.
Bear-dogs are as small as 5 kilograms (11 lb) and as large as 100 to 600 kilograms (220 to 1,300 lb). It is a carnivorous, dog like mammal that can run very fast and dig efficiently. It uses its speed to chase down rabbits and small rodents, but are also able to dig them out of their burrows.
The Dhole typically weighs 26–44 pounds and measures 35 inches in body length and 20 inches shoulder height. The tail measures 16–18 inches in length. There is little sexual dimorphism. The Dhole has a broad, domed skull and a short, broad muzzle. The bones of the forehead and upper jaw are "swollen", producing a dish-faced profile. The hooded eyes have amber or light brown irises, and the ears are large and rounded. An extremely wide ranging animal, they often compete with raptors for prey species. The Dhole are a truly interesting pack animal. Normally ranging in groups of around twenty, they roam the countryside, searching for food in a complex social system that is reminiscent of wolves. It is believed these animals might be a possible domestication candidate and hunting animal due to the records of India's nobility using them in tiger hunts. It should be noted that the adults are not untameable, but the pups have proven quite suited to the task.
Ambulocetus ("Walking Whale") is a cetacean. It looks somewhat a crocodile and hunts just like one as well. It is a master of the aquatic ambush. On land, it is much more sluggish than in water. Ambulocetus is known to swim up and down like a mammal and not side to side like fish or crocodiles. It is an exclusive carnivore. Ambulocetus is 3 meters long (10 feet).
Koolasuchus is giant temnospondyl amphibian (almost as big as the modern American crocodile and bigger than any of the modern amphibians. This species is carnivorous. It's estimated to be around 4 to 5 meters (13 to 16 ft) in length. Its mass has been estimated to be up to 500 kilograms (1,100 lb). Like other chigutisaurids, it had a wide, rounded head and tabular horns projecting from the backside of the skull.
Gastornis ("Gastorn's Bird") is a neognath bird. It is a massive, flightless creature around 2.2 meters tall with a 45 cm. skull and beak, shaped like a hatchet. Although the beak's tips aren't hooked, the sheer mass and sharp edges of this organ indicate that Gastornis hunts various small animals. Gastornis has a relatively short neck and thick legs. Gastormis is an ambush predator.
Entelodont is a prehistoric animal. They are omnivorous but prefer meat. Entelodonts are best described as "Hogs from hell" with tusks, a brain no bigger than an orange, and hunt or at least scavenge in groups. Entelodonts also appear bigger (or stockier) than Hyaenodons that are apparently the size of modern day rhinos.
Small, cunning and feathered, these normally desert-dwelling pack hunters roam the highlands in search of easy prey. These nasty little buggers will chase down quarry over the span of days and will often ambush animals that are larger than themselves. Their territory is often a radial area around the primary nesting site, a series of small, scraped out areas that are unassuming to the naked eye. Oddly, not many raptors are found at these sites, but some brave individuals have found what seem to be burrows in their general vicinity. A typical 'raptor is not much bigger than a turkey.
Dinofelis is a medium-sized but powerful cat that possesses two prominent sabre teeth. It lives in forests and open woodlands. It is a lone hunter, and stalks its prey carefully before pouncing and swiftly killing it with its sharp claws. The front limbs of dinofelis are particularly strong and muscular, allowing it to deliver debilitating strikes with its claws, and also to pin struggling prey to the ground. Its short sabre-teeth are used to help deliver fatal wounds, especially to the neck region. The favourite prey of dinofelis are humans. It is not a fast runner, so it spends most time stalking its victims before making a sudden leap. They are 70 cm tall and weigh 87.8 kg (190 lb).
Ophthalmosaurus (meaning “eye lizard” in Greek) is an ichthyosaur, named for its extremely large eyes. It has a graceful 6 meter long dolphin-shaped body, and its almost toothless jaw is well adapted for catching squid. Like all of its relatives, it gives birth to live young due to the fact it is so specialized to life in the open ocean. They weigh typically 1-2 tons, with a diet consisting of fish, squids and mollusks.
Postosuchus is a member of archosaur infraclass or "ruling reptiles". Up to 6 meters long, two meters high. The main diet of Postosuchus consists of dicynodonts and other animals smaller than itself. Postosuchuses are fiercely territorial and ready to fight to death if another member of their own species ventures into their territory. It should be noted how slow these predators are however.
 Andalgalornis steulleti(7)
Reaching heights of 5.2 feet is Andalgalornis steulleti, another genus of the family Phorusrhacidae. While far smaller than the Kelenken, it is still capable of crushing bones in its large beak. The Andalgalornis's beak is in fact the largest in proportion to the rest of the body compared to the rest of phorusrhacids. Capable of reaching speeds even faster than its larger cousins, the Andalgalornis is also more nimble and agile. Andalgalornis may have hunted in packs of two or three; its hunting habits similar to that of the Kelenken. Due to pack tactics, Andalgalornis could take out larger foes than their size would indicate, and common targets are single Moa or other herd beasts. Their habitat is large, open plains.
Ornithocheirus is a huge pterosaur. After Quetzalcoatlus and Pteranodon, this is the biggest flying reptile of all time, with a wingspan reaching almost 12 m (40 ft). The males have crests on their snouts to attract mates. Outside of mating, Ornithocheirus are lone pterosaurs, the members of that species avoiding each other, preferring the company of other, smaller pterosaurs, whom they occasionally harass to steal their catch of fish.
The Velociraptor's much larger cousin, these sleek killing machines roam the swamps either in small packs of two or three, or as a solitary hunter. Eight to nine feet in length, these stealthy hunters will stalk prey much like a tiger; waiting until the right moment to strike. When they do, they make it known with a flurry of screeches and flailing claws. Deinonychus is naturally found in the low swampy areas of the island and will not attack large groups that they perceive as obvious threats.
 Haast's eagles(8)
If you thought the raptors were bad, you have yet to encounter one of the native birds. Soaring across the island are massive eagles from a bygone era. With a wingspan up to nine feet in width, these great hunters soar overhead with surprising grace. Their diet normally is comprised of Moa and other large flightless birds, but people are not off the menu. Their preferred method of attack is to dive from the sky, dropping down onto their prey with claws outstretched. Tackling their victims, they will quickly tear open the throat, or a vital area, causing the victim to die from loss of blood. Needless to say- watch the skies.
Smilodons are the biggest sabre-toothed cat of all times, and definitely the most famous. Smilodons are over 100 to 500 kg depending on the species. They behave like modern lions, with females doing most of the hunting and males most of inner-species fighting. The sabre-teeth of the animal are used to bite in the prey's neck, destroying the blood vessels and strangling the windpipe. However the saber-teeth are delicate, so the sabre-tooth cats eat only the soft parts of the body. This is very wasteful, and thus other creatures, like the terror birds and the Megatherium (a giant ground sloth of South America), often scavenge at the cats' kills. It is more than 1.40 m (55 in) high at the shoulder, 2.6 m (100 in) long on average and had a 30 cm (12 in) tail. Its upper canines reach 30 cm (12 in) and protrude up to 17 cm (6.7 in) out of the upper jaw.
 Sea Scorpions(varies)
Swimming off the coasts are some of the most fearsome insects to have ever lived. Once again a general term for a collection of species, the sea scorpions range in length anywhere from a few inches (a tasty treat actually) to over eight feet. The best method of dispatching these beasts is the use of a heavy object to smash the hard exoskeleton. It has been noted that there are, in fact, two large varieties; neither of which is pleasant. There is one large ocean-dwelling variety, and a slightly smaller freshwater variety. They both share the viscous temperament associated with their genera and should be considered a major threat if encountered. There have been reports of some species being able to crawl up onto the shore; currently these are unconfirmed...
Utahraptor is a dromeosaurid dinosaur of the theropod family, at 6 or 6.5 meters in length, 2 meters in height, and 700 kilograms in weight, it is the biggest member of its family, much bigger than its later kin, such as the more famous Velociraptor. Just like the later raptor species, utahraptor is armed with sickle-like claws on its hind legs and it has self-replenishing teeth in its jaws (and also talons on its forelegs). Its' prey includes various plant-eating dinosaurs such as Iguanodon and Polacanthus. It is capable of hunting in packs (or at least small family groups) and launching ambushes similar to those of modern lions or similar carnivores. It also had a pecking order in which to feed - adults first and subadults later.
 Kelenken guillermoi(8)
Perhaps the largest flightless bird to ever walk the planet, Kelenken are a genus of family Phorusrhacidae. Standing at about 3.2 meters, or 10 feet, tall, it dwarfs even the tallest person when standing erect. Its beak was in the area of 18 inches long, and its slender, 28 inch skull would be perfectly capable of swallowing a medium sized dog whole. Its beak is curved at the end and Kelenken is perfectly capable of using its strong neck muscles to punch with its beak like a sledgehammer. Paleontologists predict the most terrifying thing about this critter is its ability to reach land speeds in excess of 30 miles per hour. It is also important to remember the large, clawed feet of the bird, easily capable of trampling almost anything that gets underfoot, though this is likely not a usual tactic. The Kelenken is an Apex Predator, and typically the top of the food chain in its given habitat, capable of taking on multiple raptors or even a deinonychus. It's main sources of food are Moa or steppe-dwelling herbivores which it can effortlessly outrun. Kelenken's main habitat are large, open plains where it can make the most of its high endurance and speed. Kelenkens are natives to /k/ island.
 Cave Lion(9)
Cave lions are related to African and Asian lions we have today, but at 1.2 meters high at the shoulders and at 2 meters in length and a weight of about 160-350 kg, it was larger than the modern animals. These lions also lack manes unlike the modern beasts. Unlike the modern lions, however, cave lions (panthera leo spelaea) also have thick fur, like the modern Siberian tigers, especially in winter. The hunt alone or in pairs in the forests.
Eustreptospondylus is a carnivorous dinosaur. It is a theropod, related both to Allosaurus and Giganotosaurus. Unlike them, however, Eustreptospondylus is an amphibious hunter, capable of swimming from island to island and hunt both on land and in the shadows. And is about 4.63 meters (15.2 ft) long.
 Thylacoleo or Pouch Lion(9)
The Thylacoleo, or pouch lion, is a brute found hunting the lowlands. Individuals ranged up to around 29.5 in height at the shoulder, and about 60 in from head to tail. Measurements taken from a number of specimens show that they averaged 220 to 285 lb in weight, although individuals heavier than 350 lb may not have been uncommon. This would make it quite comparable to female Lions and Tigers in general size. The creature has a retractable thumb claw, clawed paws and semi-opposable thumbs, and is capable of leaning on its talk to stand, much like a kangaroo. It's known to climb trees, taking its prey with it. An elusive hunter; listen for its low growling calls in forested areas in order to escape its vicious temper. Be ready for an ambush if you spot any of the tell-tale signs of thylacoleo; long series of deep gashes along tree trunks indicate it may have recently climbed into one; droppings containing bone fragments and half eaten corpses hanging from trees are the most obvious signs.
Hyaenodon was a deadly predator whose species range in size from a fox to a small rhino. It roams the plains, has powerful jaws, huge claws and is a fast runner. Part of Hyaenodon's hunting success comes from its teeth, which are specifically designed to shear and rip through meat, even more so than the modern carnivores, they are also self sharpening. The smaller Hyaenodon species hunt at night in packs, cooperating with one another to bring down and kill prey that was larger than themselves. The biggest species of Hyaenodon, which stands taller than a man, hunts alone and are very territorial, defending their patch against any trespassers.
Andrewsarchus is a mesonychid. It is a hunter and a scavenger. About 5.5 meters long, 1.8 meters tall and weight 1 tonne it is the largest land mammal carnivore on earth. They lurk near beaches.
Allosaurus is one of the top predators. While most specimens grow up to 9.5 meters long, the largest specimen (formerly identified as Epanterias) grew to 12.1 meters long, making it one of the biggest predator on the land, almost as big as Tyrannosaurus Rex, but with a more light build and a relatively weaker bite, designed to rip flesh rather than to crush bone. They were probably pack hunters and used their numbers to catch larger animals such as Apatosaurus and Diplodocus. Proof of this was shown in the Cleveland Lloyd-Quarry with 75% of the bones belonged to Allosaurus. Though, not everyone agrees and think that like modern reptiles, it showed aggression to each other. The name Allosaurus means "different lizard". Allosaurus was mostly found in many parts of North America including Utah, Colorado, Dakota, Texas, and other parts of the U.S, but also Allosaurus ranged into parts of Africa such Tanzania etc, and also Australia has a smaller, dwarf-species version. An adult individual of Allosaurus measures 4 m tall, is over 12 m long and weighs up 2-5 tonnes in weight. Moreover, the body of this dinosaur is agile and flexible enough for them to be the most successful, best-adapted predators. One basic features of Allosaurus is its teeth, which are sharp long and serrated, and built more like knives to tear and slice up flesh from the bodies of its victims. Its claws are long and sharp, helping not only leave scars but also its arms are opposal, and it can actually cling on to its victims. Its feet are designed for speed enabling 25km/ph and were fast enough to help it run long distances, and can leap and jump short-distances when close-contact with its prey. Also it has 3 clawed feet and can use them to slice open flesh, and also to help him seem lighter when walking and running. Its tail is long and strong enough to keep balance while running, and can change directions quickly in order for this. Unlike the carnivores such as the Tyrannosaurus rex, allosaurs hunt in packs with or without family units but only when hunting giant prey such as Sauropods.
 Tyrannosaurus Rex(10)
Tyrannosaurus is a theropod dinosaur. Growing up to 40 ft long, 13 ft tall, and weighting up to 7 tons, it is a giant. This dinosaur has one of the most powerful bites in the animal kingdom, though the giant shark Megalodon has an even more powerful one. They are both hunters and scavengers, able to reach up to 40 km/h. Their main diet consists of hadrosaurs like Anatotitan. These are easy prey in comparison to ceratopsids like Torosaurus and armored dinosaurs like Ankylosaurus. They are also potential cannibals, eating their own kind. T-rex chicks have feathers. They may rarely hunt in packs.
One of the most dreaded predators of the island a beast that prowls along the coastlines and deep bays and inlets This monstrous fish can reach up to thirty-three feet in length. A true hyper predator, this monster will hunt anything, including boats and the people aboard them. Noted for its massive armored face and jaws this beast is one of the new leviathans of the waters of the world. Currently, there is no reasonable way to kill these creatures. Your safest bet is to simply run.
Megalodon are prehistoric sharks. Superficially, megalodon resemble modern great white sharks, but with the overall body length of up to 16 meters, they have jaws with a 2-metre-wide opening span, studded with teeth that are quite different from the modern white sharks and could swallow them whole. Weighing up to 52 tons, Megalodon is the largest shark of all times. Being so big, megalodon hunt practically everything that lives in the oceans - dolphins, primitive whales, manatees, etc.
Liopleurodon is a pliosaur and perhaps the mightiest aquatic predator of all time. Its long body can cruise silently through the shallow seas, propelled by its flapping flippers. Liopleurodon is a hunter. Its long jaws and rows of needle-sharp teeth make marine crocodiles, the giant fish Leedsichthys, ichthyosaurs and even other pliosaurs vulnerable to attack. Liopleurodon's nose allows it to smell underwater. This allows Liopleurodon to smell its prey from some distance away. Despite needing to breath air, Liopleurodon spends its entire life at sea and is unable to leave the water. Consequently, it gives birth to its young alive and visits shallower water to breed. Liopleurodon can weigh up to 150 tons, making it the third largest animal to have existed in Earth's history, after the blue whale and Leedsichthys. One more reason that would seem to suggest that Liopleurodon can grow to lengths of 25 or more meters, is the fact that like dinosaurs, pliosaurs do not stop growing with age. And because Liopleurodon had no natural predators, it can live up to 100 years. Easily enough time to grow more than 82 feet. 10-15 meters of length seems to be an accurate size for this colossal pliosaur.
 Major Flora
 Cabbage Palm, Swamp Cabbage Palm -- Sabal Palmetto(edible)
A tree up to 60 ft. tall, with long, spreading leaves up to 9 ft. long; it bears fragrant, yellow-white flowers in many branched clusters, and fruits which are 1/4" wide. Many of these trees are found in lightly wooded, swampy areas. Improper (radical) pruning will weaken the root system and promotes disease. Leaf material can be used for weaving and thatch, and the plant can also be used in honey farming. The heart can be cut out and eaten, but this will kill the tree.
 Red Mulberry -- Morus rubra (edible)
Red mulberry grows in a dense, bushy, tree with drooping branches. Reaching heights of 30 to 50 ft tall, identifying features are milky sap and deciduous, ovate leaves with pointed tips. The trees are found in sandy lowland areas. The flowers are minute and grow in spikes, the males of which are 2 to 3 inches long. Fruit grows in 1 to 2 inch oblong clusters, is dark purple, and very juicy when ripe. Fruit is first ready in late spring, and the plant will produce through fall. The best way to eat mulberries is fresh from the tree when fully ripe, but many enjoy mulberry wine, jam or pies.
 Blackberry, Dewberry -- Rubus flagellaris(edible)
Bramble- among the many varieties of blackberry, some are ground creepers, although most grow upright, then arch downward. The Leaves have three or five leaflets, and the stems have thorns. The Blooms are white with five petals, and the fruit is black, with many juicy lobes, which grow in clusters. Mid to late summer is the harvest time. Found most often in small clearings and open hedge rows, the Berries are a delicious treat and also a great way to bait certain wild animals.
 Purslane -- Portulaca oleracea(edible)
Ground cover -this colorful, flowering succulent has stems 3 to 6 inches long and is often found in Flowering areas. The bright yellow or orange flowers are small with 5 petals. The fruit is a round capsule with many small black seeds. Do not eat the fruit; instead, eat the leaves raw or steamed. They are purported to taste like green beans
 Winged Bean, Goa Bean(edible)
The winged bean plant grows as a vine with climbing stems and leaves, 3-4 m in height. It is an herbaceous perennial, but can be grown as an annual. It is generally taller and notably larger than the Common bean, with a pod typically 6-9 in long. The pod has four wings with frilly edges running lengthwise; the skin is waxy and the flesh partially translucent in the young pods, but turns an ash-brown color when fully ripe, and splits open to release the seeds. The flowers are large and pale blue. This bean has been called the "one species supermarket" because practically all of the plant is edible. The beans are used as a vegetable, but the other parts (leaves, flowers, and tuberous roots) are also edible. The tender pods, which are the most widely eaten part of the plant (and best eaten when under 1" in length), can be harvested within two to three months of planting. The flowers are often used to color rice and pastries. The young leaves can be picked and prepared as a leaf vegetable, similar to spinach. The roots can be used as a root vegetable, similar to the potato, and have a nutty flavor; they are also much more rich in protein than potatoes. The dried seeds can be useful as a flour and also to make a coffee-like drink. Each of these parts of the winged bean provide a source of vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron, and other vitamins.
Barley is a type of plant. Its seeds are a cereal grain. It is eaten by humans and other animals, and it is one of mankind's oldest crops. It can be made into flour or beer.
Maize (called corn in some countries) is a member of the grass family Poaceae. It is a cereal grain that was first grown by people in ancient Central America. It is now the third most important cereal crop in the world. It is a leafy stalk whose kernels contain seeds inside. It is an angiosperm, which means that its seeds are enclosed inside a fruit or shell. It is used as a food staple by many people in Mexico, Central and South America and parts of Africa. In Europe and the rest of North America, maize is grown mostly for use as animal feed. In Canada and the United States, maize is commonly referred to as "corn".
Oats (Avena sativa) are a type of cereal grain. People use them as food for themselves and other animals, for example, chickens and horses. Oatmeal is made from oats. Oat straw is used as bedding for animals. Porridge is made only from whole grain oats
Rye is a type of grass, usually grown as a grain or forage crop (meaning that it is fed to animals). It is a member of the wheat family of plants and is similar to wheat and barley. It is used to make flour, food for animals, and many types of alcoholic drinks.
Sorghum is a genus in the grass family Poaceae. The plants are grown in warmer climates. Species grow naturally in tropical and subtropical regions of all continents in addition to Oceania and Australasia. Because many species of Sorghum are resistant to drought and high temperatures, it is a very important food source in the desert areas of Africa.
Wheat is a kind of plant. Its seeds are a type of cereal grain that people can eat. It is used to make many things, like bread and pasta, by first turning it into flour. It can also be fermented to make beer, alcohol, vodka, or biofuel. The grass plant comes from the Middle East.
Manioc (or Cassava, or Yuca, especially in Latin America) is a shrub. It belongs to the Spurge family of plants. It grows in tropical climates. It is cultivated for its edible root. Cassava must be cooked properly to detoxify it before it is eaten and can be used in dumplings, soups, stews and gravies.
 Sweet Potato(Edible)
The Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a plant that is a member of the morning glory family, grown for its sweet, edible, tuberous roots.
Yam is a versatile vegetable. It can be barbecued; roasted; fried; grilled; boiled; baked; smoked and when grated it is processed into a dessert recipe. Yams are the staple crop of the Igbo people of Nigeria.
Banana is the common name for a type of herb and also the name for the herbaceous plants that grow this herb. These plants belong to the genus Musa. They are native to the tropical region of Southeast Asia. There are about 100 different species of bananas.
It is possible that bananas were grown for food for the first time in Papua New Guinea. Today, they are cultivated in the tropical regions around the world. Most banana plants are grown for their herbs, but some are grown as ornamental plants, or to provide fibre. In parts of Africa, beer has been made by fermenting the juice of certain cultivars, known as beer bananas. The ash of banana can be used to make soap. In Asia, bananas are often planted to provide shade to plants that love it, for example coffee, cocoa, nutmeg or black pepper. That way, banana plants can often be found in plantations of other crops. The bananas from a group of cultivars with firmer, starchier fruit are called plantains. The bananas that are used for desserts are called dessert bananas.
A Chickpea is a yellow edible vegetable which can be used for cooking. The peas can be bought canned or dried. It is also one of the earliest vegetables to be grown. The first chickpea was grown in the Middle East about 7,500 years ago. The most popular place for chickpeas to grow is in India. Chickpeas contain zinc, protein and folic acid.
 Great Northern Bean(Edible)
Great Northern beans are beans that are white colored. They are also light in flavor. They have a shape like a Lima bean except it is a little bit shorter than a Lima bean.
The lentil or daal or pulse (Lens culinaris) is a bushy annual plant of the legume family. It is a kind of vegetable, grown for its lens-shaped seeds. It is about 15 inches tall and the seeds grow in pods, usually with two seeds in each. The seeds only need very little cooking. This time is especially short for kinds of lentils with their husk removed, such as the common red lentil). Lentils have a distinctive earthy flavor.
Sugarcane (or sugar cane) is a genus of plants. There are between 6 and 37 types of sugarcane (how many there are depends on the interpretation of what is a grass and what is not). Sugarcane grows in warm and tropical climates. Sugarcane stalks grow to between 2 and 6 meters tall. These stalks contain sugar, which is used to sweeten food and drinks. After the sugar has been taken out the remains of the stalks can be burned to generate heat and electricity. It can also be made into paper, cardboard and cutlery. grows on a slope and requires a medium level of water usually found in hilly or slopey areas an needs a good quality soil and has a bambooish look to it.
Tomato is a red fruit. It is shiny and smooth, and has many small seeds. The tomato is green when it is unripe. It slowly changes color from green to red as it gets more ripe. There are many different types of tomatoes. Most tomatoes are red, but some special kinds are yellow or orange when they are ripe. Also, some tomatoes are as small as strawberries, and some will become as big as apples. Tomatoes are used a lot in Italian food. They are also used to make ketchup.
 Cacao tree(Edible)
The Cacao tree is a small tree originally in tropical South America. It is small, and only grows to 4 to 8 meters in height. Its seeds are called cocoa and are used to produce cocoa butter, the chocolate drink, as well as chocolate. Nowadays the trees are grown in plantations in many tropical countries.
The Artichoke or Globe Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is a perennial plant of the Asteraceae family, are originating in Southern Europe around the Mediterranean. The thick edible scales and bottom parts of the immature flower heads are culinary delicacy. The bottom part of the immature flower head called a heart.
Asparagus is a large genus of flowering plants, including many different species. One of these is often grown to be pretty, the "asparagus fern", Asparagus setaceus (although it is not a real fern). The best known plant in this group is Asparagus officinalis, which is an important food plant.
The aubergine (also called eggplant) is a vegetable. It is in the Nightshade family of plants. It is related to the potato and tomato. Originally it comes from India and Sri Lanka. The fruit of the aubergine plant is commonly used as a vegetable.
 Azuki bean(Edible)
The azuki bean is a type of reddish-brown colored bean. It can also be spelled adzuki. The bean is grown in East Asia and the Himalayas. It is often boiled in sugar to make a red bean paste. This paste is used in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese cooking.
 Black-eyed pea(Edible)
The black-eyed pea, also called black-eyed bean, a subspecies of the cowpea, is a medium-sized edible bean. Humans first grew the pea probably in West Africa, but it is now grown all over the world.
The soybean (or soya bean) is a plant with fruit called beans, from Eastern Asia. The height of a grown soybean is between less than 20 cm and up to 2 m. One plant soybean lives for only one year. Soybeans can be eaten or used to make oil, sauce, milk, flour, tofu and other foods. These soy foods have much protein. Also fuel can be made from soybeans.
A pea, although treated as a vegetable in cooking, is botanically a fruit; the term is most commonly used to describe the small spherical seeds or the pods of the legume Pisum sativum. The name is also used to describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceae like the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)and the seeds from several species of Lathyrus. P. sativum is an annual plant. It is a cool season crop, planted in winter. The average pea weighs between 0.1 and 0.36 grams. The species is as a fresh vegetable, but is also grown to produce dry peas like the split pea. These varieties are typically called field peas.
Broccoli is a plant, Brassica oleracea. It is a vegetable similar to cabbage. Broccoli has green flower heads and a stalk.
 Brussels sprout(Edible)
Brussels sprouts are a green vegetable. They are small cabbages that can be used for salads or other recipes. They have almost the same nutrition as cabbage in carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. They have a lot of fiber.
The peanut plant flowers above ground, then develops its pods underground. Because of this, peanuts are often called groundnuts. Other names include arachides, goobers, mani, and pinders. This strange legume yields shell-covered pods (fruits) that contain one or more seeds. A nut is a hard shelled fruit that comes from a plant whose fruit does not open to release its seed. A nut is a composite of the fruit and seed, some examples of true nuts are: acorns, beechnuts, chestnuts and hazelnuts. So despite the name, the plant is not a nut in the biological sense, but a legume. Peanuts grow by starting out as an above ground flower that, due to its heavy weight, bends towards the ground. The flower eventually burrows underground, which is where the peanut actually matures. The veined brown shell or pod of the peanut contains two or three peanut kernels. Each oval-shaped kernel or seed is comprised of two off-white lobes that are covered by a brownish-red skin. Peanuts have a hardy, buttery and "nutty" taste. Peanuts go by various names throughout the world with "goober" or "goober pea" being one of the most popular. Goober is derived from "nguba," the name for peanut in the Bantu language spoken in parts of Africa. Peanuts are known scientifically as Arachis hypogaea.
Tobacco is a plant of the nightshade family, found mainly in North America and South America. Dried tobacco leaves are often smoked in cigars, cigarettes and pipes, but can also be chewed in the mouth or sniffed in the nose. Tobacco contains a very powerful chemical called nicotine which makes it very hard for tobacco users to stop using it.
The name of the color indigo originally came from the indigo plant. Indigo is a dye made from the indigo plant, used to dye cloth.
The indigo plant originally came from the nation of India. The Ancient Greek language word for the dye is indikon. The Romans used the term indicum, which passed into Italian dialect and eventually into English as the word indigo.
Cotton is soft fiber that grows with the seeds of the cotton plant. (Fiber is long and thin, like hair.) After the cotton fiber is gathered from the plant, it can be made into thread. The cotton thread can then be made into cloth. The cloth can be used to make clothes for people and many other things. Cotton clothing is very nice to wear, especially when it is hot and is easy to move around in.
The almond is a small tree in the family Rosaceae. The tree makes nuts or fruits that are also called almonds. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified in the subgenus Amygdalus. Amygdalus is told apart from other subgenera by the wavy seed shell. Botanically, the almond seed or fruit is not a true nut, but a drupe. It grows from four and 10 meters tall. It has a trunk 30 centimeters wide. The young twigs are green at first, but they become purple when sunlight goes on them. When they are in their second year, they turn gray. The leaves are three to five inches long. The flowers are white or light pink, 3–5 cm wide with five petals.
The macadamia nut is the fruit of a tree that first came from the east coast of Australia. There are more than one kind of Macadamia trees, but only one kind is grown for food. The tree is an evergreen (stays green all year long). It grows up to 25 feet (7.5 meters) high. It bears groups of small white flowers. It grows best in subtropical (wet and always warm) climates. It needs well drained soil (water can flow away easily) and 40 to 100 inches (1000 to 2500 mm) of rain a year. The nutmeat (the soft part you can eat, inside the shell) is mostly a creamy white in color, but sometimes looks a bit yellow. It has a delicate flavor that many people like very much. Macadamias are eaten roasted (cooked), or in cookies, cakes, pastries, and candies. People use them as part of cooked meals, similar to the way that almonds and cashews are used in oriental cuisine (a style of cooking).
The Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) is a species of hickory nut, native to south-central North America, in the United States from southern Iowa, Illinois and Indiana east to western Kentucky, North Carolina and western Tennessee, south through Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma and Arkansas; and in Mexico from Coahuila south to Jalisco and Veracruz. Pecans are often used in cooking in the Southern United States; a common dessert there is pecan pie.
Walnuts are plants that occur mostly in the northern hemisphere. They grow as trees, which can reach ten to forty meters in height. Walnuts are important, they are grown for timber. In addition, the actual fruit is used to make oil, but it can also be eaten.
The cashew is a tropical tree in the flowering plant. The plant is native to northeastern Brazil. It is now widely grown in tropical climates for its cashew "nuts" (see below) and cashew apples.
Cannabis (also called Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, or marijuana) is a plant. The cannabis plant's flowers contain a chemical or drug known as THC (short for tetra-hydro-cannabinol). Smoking or eating the flower can make a person feel good (euphoria) or have creative ideas. When a person breathes in the marijuana smoke or eats it, he or she may get a feeling called "getting high" or "getting stoned". The most common effects of the drug include feeling happy, relaxed, tired, silly or scared, having many ideas what to do or not being able to think clearly (or remember some things at all), and getting hungry (otherwise known as getting 'the munchies'.) Since hashish (dried resin) is much more concentrated than marijuana (includes leaves and flowers), people who take large amounts of hashish may feel even stronger effects. They may also hear strange sounds, or have visions or thoughts called hallucinations. Some hashish users like the feeling of these visions and thoughts, while others may find them scary; however, hallucinations after smoking or eating cannabis are rare.
The rose is a type of flowering shrub. Its name comes from the Latin word rosa. Roses belong to the family of plants called Rosaceae. All roses were originally wild and they come from several parts of the world, North America, Europe, northwest Africa and many parts of Asia and Oceania.
Many roses have a strong, pleasant scent. Most roses have thorns on their stems and they are able to tolerate a wide variety of growing conditions.
A lily is a type of flowering plant. There are many species of lilies, like water lilies and tiger lilies. Most lilies grow from a bulb, which is sometimes eaten as a food. Lily is the general term for the perennial plant, from the Latin lilium. The lily has a long stem, and its funnel-shaped flower blooms in summer. Lilies grow in Europe, North America, and Asia. There are more than 100 kinds. They also come in various colours. It tends to grow wild in the forest and a grassy plain of a mountainous area, but several kinds grow wild on wet ground. A lily's petals come in multiples of three.
Nelumbo is a genus of water plants which are also known as lotus. Lotus flowers are large – up to 20 cm across – and they smell sweet.
The Sacred Lotus of Asia has pink flowers. The American Lotus has yellow flowers. The lotus flowers grow over the water. Lotus leaves often float on top of the water. The roots of lotus plants are in the mud (wet dirt) under the water. Every part of every plant must have air for respiration (breathing). Air spaces in the stems and roots make the lotus able to live and respire under water.
People can eat lotus roots and seeds. Cattle (cows) like to eat the leaves and flowers.
The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is an annual plant in the family Asteraceae, with a large flower head (inflorescence). The stem of the flower can grow up to 3 meters tall, with a flower head that can be 30 cm wide. Birds and other animals enjoy eating sunflower seeds. Humans like to eat them too, although not all kinds, and often they are covered with chocolate, salt, or honey. Other types of sunflowers include the California Royal Sunflower, which has a burgundy (red + purple) flower head.
The Petunia is a family of plants. All of them bear flowers. They are in the Nightshade family, and are related to tobacco. Many people grow them in the garden. Petunias are perennial plants, meaning the survive many years. Usually they are planted in the sun.
Jasmine is a genus of plants. They are shrubs or vines that grow in moderately warm climates. There are about 200 different species of Jasmine. They are also quite liked in gardens. Tea can be made from the flowers. Some species are used to make special oil, perfumes or incense. Women, especially from Asia sometimes wear jasmine flowers in their hair.
Tulip (Tulipa) is a potflower plant. There is many races (cultivars) and species of tulips. Cultivars are used as ornamental plants.
It grows in southern Europe, north Africa, and Asia from Anatolia and Iran in the east to northeast of China and Japan, Indo Asia.
Hibiscus or rosemallow is a genus of plants with a flower of fresh colors. It grows mostly in the tropics. Hibiscus mostly lives in warm temperature zone on Earth, because cold winter season damages its growth.
The flower usually has five petals, and is about 4 - 15 cm in diameter. Hibiscus comes in many colours like white to pink, red, purple and yellow.
Dahlia is a genus of plants are native to Mexico, Central America, and Colombia. There are at least 36 species of Dahlia. Dahlias are commonly grown as garden plant with large brightly-coloured flowers. It is a flower that prefers locations with indirect sunlight.
Narcissus (Narcissi) (often called a daffodil) is the botanic name for a genus of mainly hardy, mostly spring-flowering, bulbs in the Amaryllidaceae family. They are native to Europe, North Africa, and Asia.
The violet is a genus of flowering plants.
Leaves and flowers are covered with white hairs and look woolly. Each Edelweiss bloom has five to six small yellow flower heads surrounded by leaflets in a star shape. The flowers are in bloom between July and September. The Edelweiss prefers rocky limestone places. It has been used traditionally in folk medicine. The hair on the flower protect the Edelweiss from cold.
Aspens are a type of poplar tree with leaves that move with the slightest wind. The two main species are both called 'trembling aspens' or 'quaking aspens' on account of their leaves. Populus tremuloides is the American aspen. It is common in temperate and colder regions of North America. It forms large stands (groups) of genetically identical trees (clones) connected by a single underground root system. These trees form through root sprouts coming off an original parent tree. Populus tremula is a species of poplar native to cool temperate regions of Europe and Asia, from the British Isles east to Kamchatka, north to inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and northern Russia, and south to central Spain, Turkey, the Tian Shan mountain system, North Korea, and northern Japan. It also occurs at one site in northwest Africa in Algeria. In the south of its range, it occurs at high altitudes in mountains. It is a hardy species which tolerates long, cold winters and short summers. Aspen is dioecious, so individual trees are either male or female (in contrast to most trees, where male and female flowers occur on the same tree). Trees flower in March and April, before the leaves appear, with both the male and female trees producing catkins. Pollinated female catkins ripen in early summer and release tiny seeds which are tufted with hairs. Like other aspens, its main method of reproduction is vegetative (asexual). It spreads extensively by root sprouts, which may be produced up to 40 meters from the parent tree. They form extensive clonal colonies. Large numbers of new shoots can be produced in this way, especially after a major disturbance such as fire.
Fig (genus Ficus) is a soft, sweet fruit. Its skin is very thin and has many small seeds inside of it. There are more than 850 species of Ficus, the fig tree. The fruits can be eaten when ripe and when dried. Figs grow in warm climates. Sometimes, figs are made into jam. Figs are also in a popular snack. Figs are pollinated by fig wasps.
The Beech is a large tree in the genus Fagus in the plant family Fagaceae. There are about 10 species, all native to Europe Asia and North America. The beech has been used for its wood by man for thousands of years. The wood is white, or reddish if grown on acid soil, but fine grained, smooth and heavy when first cut. It may split as it dries. It is a good wood for making ornaments, tool handles, kitchen utensils, furniture and parts of buildings. Beechwood burns well and is used, among other woods, to smoke herrings in Scotland. It can also be made into charcoal.
 Sweet Chestnut(Edible)
Sweet Chestnut, sometimes called European Chestnut, Spanish Chestnut or Portuguese Chestnut is a family of trees. Originally these trees were native to the Mediterranean parts of Europe and Asia Minor. These trees can grow to sizes between 20 and 35m high. The trees are deciduous, they do not have leaves in winter. The trees are usually grown for their edible fruit.
 Eucalyptus(Multiple uses)
Eucalypts have many uses which have made them important. Because of their fast growth, the main benefit of these trees is the wood. They provide many uses, such as planting in parks and gardens, timber, firewood and pulpwood. Fast growth also makes eucalypts suitable as windbreaks. Eucalypts draw a very large amount of water from the soil. They have been planted (or re-planted) in some places to lower the water table and reduce the amount of salt in the soil. Eucalypts have also been used as a way of reducing malaria by draining the soil in such places as Algeria, Sicily mainland Europe and California. Drainage removes swamps which provide a habitat for mosquito larvae, but such drainage can also destroy harmless habitats by accident. Eucalyptus oil is refined from the leaves by steaming. It can be used for cleaning, deodorising, and in very small amounts in food supplements, especially sweets, cough drops and decongestants. Eucalyptus oil is an insect repellent (Fradin & Day 2002). The nectar of some eucalyptus produces high quality honey. In the western United States the flowering is in late January, before the flowering of other nut and fruit trees; this means that its nectar can be easily made into its own kind of honey, which is said to have a buttery taste. The ghost gum's leaves were used by Aborigines to catch fish. Soaking the leaves in water releases a mild tranquiliser which stuns fish, making them easy to catch.
Firs (Abies) are in about 45-55 species of evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae. All are trees, reaching heights of 10–80 m tall and trunk diameters of 0.5–4 m when mature. The difference between firs and other members of the pine family is that their needle-like leaves are attached to the twig by a base that resembles a small suction cup, and by erect, cylindrical female cones 5–25 cm long that release the winged seeds. The male cones are normally much smaller and spread through the tree so that the wind can help pollinate the female cones. Like all members of the pine family these trees have a sticky sap called resin. Fir wood is not suitable for construction because it is not
very resistant to insects and decay. It is usually sawn or crushed into fine sheets or pieces and made into plywood or chipboard for indoor or temporary outdoor use.
Mangroves are trees or shrubs that grow in salty water in hot places like the tropics. Mangroves make a special saltwater woodland or shrubland habitat, called a mangrove swamp, mangrove forest, mangrove or mangal. Mangroves grow on 1/3 of tropical shores. They are also found in sub-tropical Africa, Asia, and the southwest Pacific. Their twisted, tangled roots collect dirt, which often become islands. Mangroves live right in the water. Their seeds fall from the tree and will grow roots as soon as they touch any kind of soil (dirt). During low tide, they may fall in soil rather than water and start growing where they fell. If the water level is high, though, they can be carried far away from where they fell. Mangrove trees are often the beginning of what will one day be a small island. As dirt and other things collect in their roots, little bodies of land are formed – just the right place for other island vegetation to grow. This is an example of seed dispersal by water.
Maple (Latin name Acer) is a genus of trees or shrubs. Some species resist the cold rather well. Maples are also grown to make Maple syrup. Some maples are grown for timber (wood that is used for furniture).
 Para rubber tree(Multi-use)
A Para rubber tree (or simply, rubber tree) is the tree which naturally produces rubber. It is native from tropical areas from South America, in the Amazon (Brazil), but was spread by English farmers to the Far East. In the wild they may reach heights of 100 to 125 ft (30-38 m) with large cylindrical trunks with or without buttresses. Crop trees reach a width of about 20 in. (50 cm), usually with a short bole, and with a sloped taper. When trees reach 5-6 years old, they are harvested. Their trunks are cut just deep enough to tap the vessels without harming the tree's growth, and the sap is collected in small buckets. This process is known as rubber tapping. Older trees produce more latex, but they stop producing it after 26-30 years.
Spruce are trees of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and taiga regions of the earth. Spruces are large trees, from 20–60 (–95) m tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their conical form and their needles, that are attached singly to the branches in a spiral fashion. The needles are shed when 4–10 years old.
Willows are a family of trees and shrubs which have many differences in size and type of growth, but are very much alike in other respects. There are about 350 species of this plant in all the world, usually found on moist soils in cooler zones in the Northern Hemisphere. Many hybrids are known, both naturally occurring and in cultivation, because willows are very fertile between their own species.
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Capitata Group) is an edible plant. It is a lot like broccoli or Brussels sprouts. Cabbage is eaten many ways around the world. Coleslaw and sauerkraut are popular foods that use cabbage. It is also used to make kimchi and borscht. Red cabbage juice can be used as a pH indicator. Cabbage is green and red.
Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. Cauliflower is a variety of cabbage, whose white flower head is eaten. Cauliflower is very nutritious, and may be eaten cooked, raw or pickled.
Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is a plant of the Family Lamiaceae. It is also known as Sweet Basil or Tulsi. It is a tender low-growing herb that is grown as a perennial in warm, tropical climates. Basil is originally native to India and other tropical regions of Asia. It has been cultivated there for more than 5,000 years. It is prominently featured in many cuisines throughout the world. Some of them are Italian, Thai, Vietnamese and Laotian cuisines. It grows to between 30–60 cm tall. It has light green, silky leaves 3–5 cm long and 1–3 cm broad. The leaves are opposite each other. The flowers are quite big. They are white in color and arranged as a spike. The plant tastes somewhat like anise, with a strong, pungent, sweet smell. Basil is very sensitive to cold. It is best grown in hot, dry conditions. While most common varieties are treated as annuals, some are perennial, including African Blue and Holy Thai basil.
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant evergreen needle-like leaves. It is native to the Mediterranean region. It is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae, which also includes many other herbs.
 Salvia officinalis(Edible)
Salvia officinalis (garden sage, common sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is a member of the family Lamiaceae and is native to the Mediterranean region, though it has naturalized in many places throughout the world. It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times as an ornamental garden plant. The common name "sage" is also used for a number of related and unrelated species.
Parsley is a fresh flavored bright green herb. It used on food as a garnish and as a seasoning in soups, sauces and salads. Some people eat parsley to get their breath to smell better. Parsley can be easily grown in gardens, as well as inside the home, wherever there is plenty of indirect sunlight. Parsley needs good, light soil, good drainage and frequent watering to thrive indoors. To harvest parsley, cut the most mature stalks near the base that are still bright green. New shoots will grow for some time from the base of an established plant. Parsley is extraordinarily rich in vitamins C and A, minerals (especially potassium),beta-carotene, folate and dietary fiber.
Oregano or Pot Marjoram (Origanum vulgare) is a species of Origanum. It is native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. It is a perennial herb. It can grow to 20–80 cm tall. Its leaves are opposite each other. They are 1–4 cm long. The flowers are purple. They can grow 3–4 mm long. The name of the plant comes from the Greek origanon [ὀρίγανον]: oros [ὄρος] “mountain” + the verb ganousthai [γανοῦσθαι] “delight in”. The subspecies of oregano Origanum vulgare hirtum is an important herb. It is used for cooking, especially in Greek and Italian cuisines. The leaves are used for cooking.
Coriander, also known as cilantro, is a herb from the Apiaceae family. Coriander is originally from the southwestern Asia across to north Africa. In the Sri Lankan Sinhalese language, it is called koththamuhlli. It is believed to have medicinal qualities, and is brewed and drunk to cure the common cold and fever.
Lettuce is a vegetable that is very healthy to eat. Both the stems and the leaves can be eaten. Most lettuce leaves are green, but some are red. Most lettuce leaves taste bitter. Some kinds of lettuce grow in a head shape like cabbage, while the leaves of some kinds grow more loosely. The five main cultivars are: green leaf, red leaf, cos, crisphead, and stem lettuce.
Common varieties are Romaine, iceberg, and butter lettuce.
 Agaricus bisporus(Edible)
Agaricus bisporus—known variously as the common mushroom, button mushroom, white mushroom, table mushroom, champignon mushroom, crimini mushroom, Swiss brown mushroom, Roman brown mushroom, Italian brown, Italian mushroom, cultivated mushroom, or when mature, the Portobello mushroom—is an edible basidiomycete mushroom native to grasslands in Europe and North America. Agaricus bisporus is cultivated in more than 70 countries and is one of the most commonly and widely consumed mushrooms in the world.
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) are known in many English-speaking countries as lady's fingers or gumbo) is a flowering plant in the mallow family, related to cotton and hibiscus. It is valued for its edible green seed pods. It is cultivated for the pods, which are harvested in the immature stage and used in salads and soups.
Known as Garlic, Allim sativum is a type of plant that people eat for food. Garlic is related to onions, shallots, and leeks. It has a very strong flavor and smell, so people do not use too much of it. Most of the time, people use it as a flavoring so that it helps make a food taste better. It is used as herbal medicine in the treatment of cold and flu, and has side effects of heart burn, flatulence and sweating. Garlics are divided into many parts called cloves.
Onions are vegetables. They are plants in the genus Allium. When people talk about onions, they usually mean garden onions. Onions have bulbs, which are edible, in most species. They have a strong flavour, and a very distinctive smell. Onions have been grown for a very long time. They were probably first grown in Ancient Egypt, together with leek and garlic, but maybe earlier. Now, most of the world's cultures eat onions.
Chives are herbs which are related to the onion. Its leaves are used for flavoring.
 Chili pepper(Edible)
Chile pepper (also spelled Chili pepper, Chilli pepper; often shortened to chile) is the fruit of a series of plants called Capsicum (nightshade family). Those plants are now grown all over the world, but originally, they came from South America. They are used as spices or as vegetables, and also have some use in medicine.
The Jalapeño is a type of pepper. It is related to the family of the Chili pepper.
 Cayenne pepper(Edible)
The Cayenne pepper is a type of Chili pepper. It is very hot and is used as a spice.
Capsicum is a genus of plants from the nightshade family (Solanaceae). Some of these plants are used as spices, vegetables, or drugs. The fruit of Capsicum plants have a variety of names. The names vary depending on place and type. They are commonly called Chili pepper, red or green pepper, or just pepper in Britain and the US; the large mild form is called bell pepper in the US, capsicum in Australian English and Indian English, and paprika in some other countries (although paprika can also refer to the powdered spice made from various capsicum fruit).
Beet (Beta vulgaris) is a plant with a round or carrot-shaped root, one variety (red beet) used as food, another (sugar beet) as a source of sugar.
Carrots are a type of plant. Many different types exist. The Latin name of the plant is usually given as Daucus carota. Many people use it as a vegetable. The plant has an edible, orange root, and usually white flowers. Wild carrots grow naturally in Eurasia. Domesticated carrots are grown for food in many parts of the world.
Ginger is commonly used as a cooking spice throughout the world. It is the rhizome of the perennial plant Zingiber officinale in the family Zingiberaceae. The ginger plant has a long history of cultivation, known to have come from China and then spread to India, Southeast Asia, West Africa, and the Caribbean.
The turnip or white turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) is a root vegetable. It is found in temperate climates worldwide. Smaller kinds of turnip are grown for human food. Larger ones are grown to feed livestock.
A radish is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family. People eat radishes all over the world. It was first grown in Europe in pre-Roman times.
Wasabi is a spice from the cabbage family. Its root is used as a spice and has a very strong flavor. The root is smashed up into paste for people to eat. Its hotness is more like hot mustard or horseradish than chili pepper because it irritates the nose more than the tongue. When too much is eaten, a very painful feeling will shoot up to your nose. The plant grows naturally in Japan.
Spinach is a green, leafy vegetable. It comes from southwestern and central Asia. Its flowers are small and yellow.
Zucchini (British English: courgette) are a type of fruit. Usually, they are served cooked.
The cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely grown plant in the family Cucurbitaceae. This family also includes squash. A cucumber looks similar to a zucchini (British English: courgette).
A pumpkin is a gourd, they are usually orange, but they can also be white. They are shaped like spheres or stretched-out spheres.
Pumpkins can be eaten, and are often turned into pies.
Taro is a plant used as a vegetable. People eat its stem and its leaves. It is grown by people in Oceania. It is one of the earliest plants that people grew. It is poisonous when raw, but is safe to eat if it is cooked.
Watercress, Nasturtium officinale, is a plant which grows in water. It is a member of the Brassicaceae family, along with some other leaf vegetables. People grow them for eating, often in salad or sandwiches. They have a peppery flavour and are fast-growing. Watercress is related to the cabbage and mustard plants.
 Eleocharis dulcis(Edible)
The Chinese water chestnut (or simply water chestnut) is a plant. The corms of the plant are the water chestnuts and is a crispy white flesh and can be eaten raw, slightly boiled, grilled, pickled, or tinned. This plant comes from China. They are grown in flooded paddy fields.
Potato plants are herbaceous perennials with broad, green leaves that grow about 60 cm (24 in) high, depending on variety, the culms dying back after flowering. They bear white, pink, red, blue, or purple flowers with yellow stamens. The tubers of varieties with white flowers generally have white skins, while those of varieties with colored flowers tend to have pinkish skins. Potatoes are cross-pollinated mostly by insects, including bumblebees, which carry pollen from other potato plants, but a substantial amount of self-fertilizing occurs as well. Tubers form in response to decreasing day length. After potato plants flower, some varieties will produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing up to 300 true seeds. Potato fruit contains large amounts of the toxic alkaloid solanine and is therefore unsuitable for consumption. By finely chopping the fruit and soaking it in water, the seeds will separate from the flesh by sinking to the bottom after about a day (the remnants of the fruit will float). Any potato variety can also be propagated vegetatively by planting tubers, pieces of tubers, cut to include at least one or two eyes, or also by cuttings, a practice used in greenhouses for the production of healthy seed tubers.
A durian is a big fruit with a strong smell and a hard shell with sharp thorns. Its flavour is loved by some people, especially in Southeast Asia, where people name it "King of Fruits". But many people do not like the smell. Many hotels and public transportation systems do not let people carry durians because of the strong smell. Durian's flavour has been compared to custard and almonds. There are many different kinds of durian. The fruit can grow up to 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) in diameter, and usually weighs one to three kg (2 to 7 lb).
Durian is a tropical fruit. It grows only in humid, hot places. The flesh is used for many dishes in Southeast Asian cuisines. The seeds can also be eaten when cooked.
The apple has a small, leaf-shedding tree that grows up to 3 to 12 meters (9.8 to 39 ft) tall. The apple tree has a broad crown with thick twigs. The leaves are alternately arranged simple ovals. They are 5 to 12 centimeters long and 3–6 centimeters (1.2–2.4 in) wide. It has a sharp top with a soft underside. Blossoms come out in spring at the same time that the leaves begin to bud. The flowers are white. They also have a slightly pink color. They are five petaled, and 2.5 to 3.5 centimeters (0.98 to 1.4 in) in diameter. The fruit matures in autumn. It is usually 5 to 9 centimeters (2.0 to 3.5 in) in diameter. There are five carpels arranged in a star in the middle of the fruit. Every carpel has one to three seeds.
Apricot is a drupe fruit. It is closely related to the plum. Small to medium sized tree, 8–12 m tall, with a trunk up to 40 cm in diameter with spreading, dense canopy; leaves are shaped somewhat like a heart, with pointed tips, about 8 cm (3 inches) wide. Flowers are white to pinkish in color. The fruit has only one seed; the color runs from yellow to orange and may have a red cast; the surface of the fruit is smooth and nearly hairless.
An avocado is a berry fruit. It has medium dark green or dark green bumpy or smooth skin depending on the variety.
The flesh of an avocado is deep chartreuse green in color near the skin and pale chartreuse green near the core. It has a creamy, rich texture.
Avocado trees come from Central America and Mexico. They can grow in many places, as long as it is not too cold.
Avocadoes have much more fat than most other fruit, but most is fat that is healthy to eat (unsaturated fat). Avocados have lots of potassium, B vitamins, and vitamin E and K. The Mexican food called guacamole is made of avocadoes. Many other foods are also made from avocado.
Avocado is poisonous to some animals. Many animals will get very sick or die if they eat avocado.
The blackberry is an edible fruit made by any of several species in the Rubus genus of the Rosaceae family. Blackberries and raspberries are also called "caneberries" or "brambles." It is a widespread, and well known group of over 375 species, which are closely related apomictic microspecies native all over the temperate Northern hemisphere and South America. The blackberry grows to about 3 m in height. It makes an edible black fruit, known by the same name. The plant tolerates poor soil very well. It is very pervasive. It will grow fast, taking over uncultivated spots very fast. The black, juicy plump ones taste sweeter than the pre-mature blackberries (the red ones).
The bilberry is a type of shrub that grows close to the ground. It is a member of the genus Vaccinium. The bilberry is known by many names. It is also called blaeberry, whortleberry, whinberry, myrtle blueberry, fraughan, and probably other names in different regions of the world. They are related to the North American blueberries and huckleberries. Bilberry contains nutrients good for the eyes.
A blueberry is a berry, a very small fruit. It grows in a type of tree called a shrub. Many types of blueberries grow in North America and eastern Asia. Blueberries are more common between May and October. Blueberries have a sweet taste, with a little acidic hint. Wild blueberries have a stronger taste. Blueberries are good for making jelly, jam, pie, muffins, and many other foods.
Cherry is a fruit that grows on a tree or a bush. It belongs to the genus Prunus. It is usually red, with a seed in the middle. It tastes slightly sour, and is often used to flavour cakes and ice cream, or is baked in a pie or cobbler. Cherries are also a good source of Vitamin B.
 Date Palm(Multi-use)
The Date Palm is a palm. It has been cultivated for a very long time because of its edible fruit. This fruit is called date. The tree is between 15m and 25m high. It has long leaves that look like feathers. Such leaves are called pinnate. The leaves can grow to 3-5 meters in length. The leaves have visible spines. There are about 150 leaflets. Each leaflet can be up to 30 cm in length and 2cm in breadth. The full span of the crown of the tree is 6 to 10 meters. The tree has one or more trunks, that all come from a single system of roots.
Pitaya fruit, pitahaya fruit, commonly known as the dragon fruit, is a fruit from Asia. It is a favorite to many, particularly people of Asian origin. It has a light sweet taste, an intense shape and color, and outstanding flowers. In addition to being tasty and refreshing, this contains a lot of water and other vital minerals with varied nutritional ingredients.
The gooseberry is a type of fruit. It has a greenish color. It looks like an ungrown clementine. It belongs to the same family as the currant.
Grapes are the fruit of a woody grape vine. Grapes can be eaten raw, or used for making wine, juice, and jelly/jam. Grapes come in different colours; red, purple, white, and green are some examples. Today, grapes can be seedless, by using machines to pit the fruit. Wild grapevines are often considered a nuisance weed, as they cover other plants with their usually rather aggressive growth.
Raisins are the dried fruit of the grapevine, and the name actually comes from the French word for "grape."
Grapefruit is a citrus fruit grown in sub-tropical places. It is bigger than an orange and is often more sour, but many types of grapefruit have other flavors. The tree which the grapefruit grow on, normally are 5-6 meters tall but can reach up to 15 meters tall. It has dark green leaves that measure up to 150mm and has white flowers that grow 5cm in length. The fruit itself can grow 10-15cm in diameter. There are many different kinds of grapefruits with different color pulp. The most popular colors are red, white and pink. There are also a wide range of flavors grapefruits have. From highly acidic and bitter to sweet.
Guavas are plants in the genus Psidium of the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). There are about 100 species of tropical shrubs and small trees in the genus. They are native to Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America and the northern part of South America. Now they are found in all the tropical, and in some subtropical, regions because their edible fruits.
Huckleberry is a name used in North America for several plants in two closely related genera in the family Ericaceae: Gaylussacia and Vaccinium. The fruit of most species of huckleberry can be eaten. The berries are small and round. They are usually less than 5 mm in diameter and contain 10 seeds. Berries range in color from bright red, through dark purple, and into the blues. In taste the berries range from tart to sweet. They have a flavor similar to that of a blueberry. Huckleberries are well liked by many mammals such as bears and humans.
Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) is a fruit. It has an oval shape, and is green on the inside with small black seeds that are edible. The kiwi has furry brown skin that is edible but is usually removed. The skin is relatively thin. The kiwi is native to South China. The kiwifruit is healthy and contains many vitamins and minerals, like vitamin C, potassium, and fiber. Kiwis have more vitamin C than an equivalent amount of orange.
The lemon is a small tree (Citrus limon) that is green even in the winter. It came from Asia, and is also the name of the tree's oval yellow fruit. The fruit is used for cooking and other things in the world – usually for its juice. People do not know for sure where lemons have come from. However, most people think that lemons first grew in India, northern Burma, and China. The lemon is the common name for Citrus limon. A lemon is a yellow citrus fruit. It is related to the orange. Lemon juice is about 5% citric acid, and has a pH of 2 to 3. Lemon plants vary in size yet stay generally small. The tallest height they can get is about 6 meters tall. Lemons taste sour. The juice, zest, and pulp are often used in cooking, often on fish and other meat for better taste. Lemon is also used to flavour drinks, such as lemonade or soft drinks.
Lime is a word to refer to various fruit trees. Most of them are citrus fruit. They are usually associated with the lemon. Limes have a lot of vitamin C. Sailors from Britain were given lemon or lime juice to stop them falling ill with scurvy. This is how they got the nickname Limey.
Limes are small, round and bright green. If they stay on the tree for a long time they turn yellow. Then they look like small round lemons.
Lime juice is used in cooking and in drinks. Lime oils are often used in perfumes, used for cleaning, and used for aromatherapy.
Lime tasetes very acid and bitter, not sweet like sugar. Lime juice is also made from lime, and is in the same family as lemon.
 Mandarin orange(Edible)
The Mandarin orange, also known as the mandarin or mandarine (both lower-case), is a small citrus tree (Citrus reticulata) with fruit that looks like other oranges. Mandarin oranges are usually eaten plain or in fruit salads. The mandarin is tender, and is damaged easily by cold. It can be grown in tropical and subtropical areas. The mandarin is easily peeled with the fingers, and can be easily split into even segments without squirting juice. This makes it more convenient to eat, as utensils are not required to peel or cut the fruit.
A mango is a type of fruit. It is found almost anywhere, but is thought to come from the southern and southeast Asian continent including India, Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. Pakistan and India share the major export market of mangoes. It is also their national fruit. Ripe mangoes are very sweet in taste but they are bitterly sour before they ripen. There are varieties of mangoes found in India: Langra, Dussheri, Chausa, Tota, Safadi, Alphonso are types of mangoes which are generally found in various parts of India at different time.
A cantaloupe is a type of melon. It is a muskmelon that is probably related to the watermelon. There are two types of cantaloupe, European and North American. Cantaloupes range in size from 0.5 to 5.0 kilograms (1.1 to 11 lb).
 Honeydew melon(Edible)
Honeydew is a type of melon in the cultivar group muskmelon. Cucumis melo Inodorus group, which includes crenshaw, casaba, Persian, winter, and other mixed melons.
A watermelon is a type of edible fruit. They are 92% water. About six percent of a watermelon is sugar. This makes them very sweet. There are many different tlypes of watermelon. Some have a green rind on the outside and a red-pink flesh on the inside, with black seeds. Some can have yellow flesh, and some can be seedless. The green rind on the outside is not usually eaten, though it can be used as a vegetable. It can also be stewed or pickled. Most watermelons are oblong or spherical
The Peach blossoms are from small to medium-sized. The tree is sometimes up to 6.5 m (21 feet) in height. When it is grown by people, though, the height it is usually kept between 3 and 4 m (10 and 13 feet) by pruning. Its leaves are green and pointy. They usually have glands that make a liquid to attract insects. Peaches are also called stone fruits because they have a shell of hard wood around their seed, called a stone or a pit. The skin of a peach is an orange or yellow color, and it is covered in small hairs called a peach fuzz. A peach without the fuzz is usually called a nectarine. The inside of a peach is a golden color. It tastes sweet and sticky. Because of this, peaches are often part of dessert.
Pear is a fruit that resembles a teardrop. Ripe pears have a flavor that is best when it is cool. They are juicy. Pears do not ripen well on trees. They can be soft in the center. It is harvested when it is fully ready to be picked. They can be baked, canned or frozen. They can be made into jams, jellies or juice. They can also be made into pies and put into salads or baby food. Pear trees grow on heavy soil. It is eighty three percent water. It has a green or red skin. The pear came from Europe, Africa and Asia.
A plum is a sweet fruit. Its scientific name is Prunus. (scientific names are uncommon so you should not use prunus in normal English). When dried, it is called a prune. The color "plum" takes its name from the fruit. Plum colored plums are called purple plums and are a deep purple color; other plums are reddish purple (these two varieties are shown in the picture at right). Some other plums can be yellow, red, green or even white. The fruit has a groove running down one side, and a smooth stone (seed). The flesh of the fruit is brownish and is very juicy. The skin can be eaten. It can also be used to make jam and the juice can be used to make wine. It is closely related to the apricot.
Pineapple is a plant and a fruit. It is from Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay, but is grown as a crop in other tropical areas, most famously in Hawaii. The plant is a short (1–1.5 m) with 30 or more trough-shaped, pointed leaves surrounding a thick stem. The fruit is slightly acidic and very tasty
The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit. It has seeds called arils that are covered in an edible red pulp. The pomegranate was first known in Iran and the Himalayas in northern India and has since been spread to many kinds of dry areas with seasonal rain fall. Its Hindi name is anar.
A raspberry is an aggregate fruit, meaning it is many fruits joined together.
It typically grows in forest clearings or fields where fire or wood-cutting has produced open space. The raspberry flower can be a source of nectar for honeybees. As a cultivated plant in moist temperate regions, it is easy to grow. It has a tendency to spread unless cut back.
Two types of raspberries can be bought in stores: the wild summer-bearing type, which produces fruit in the summer, and double- or "ever"-bearing plants, which also bear fruit in the summer. Leaves of the raspberry are used fresh or dried in herbal teas. Leaves are found in groups of 3 or 5, and the undersides are silver-white in color. Blackberries have leaves that look similar to raspberry leaves, but the undersides are green.
Carambolas, also known as star fruit, are tropical fruits. The fruit grows on trees that are native to India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. Star fruit is common in the south of Asia, Australia and all of the islands around Australia. The tree is also grown in tropic islands. Star fruit tastes best ripe (yellow with a little green). It will also be brown on the five edges and feel hard. If the star fruit is overripe it will be yellow with brown spots. You can eat all of the fruit, even the skin. It is sweet and very juicy. The taste is a little bit like a mix of papaya, orange and grapefruit. The Carambola is a tropical fruit. In India, it grows up to 4,000 feet in elevation. It prefers a total exposure to the sun but requires high humidity and a total of 70 inches or more of rainfall a year. It requires good drainage of the soil Carambola trees are planted 20 feet or more from each other. They grow fast and makes fruit when they are four or five years old. The rain during Spring makes the amount of fruit lower. In perfect conditions, Carambola can make from 200 to 400 pounds of fruit a year. The fruit is picked mainly during the months of June, July, and August.
 Garden strawberry(Edible)
A strawberry is a plant that grows fruit that people eat. The fruit of a strawberry is red when ripe, and has edible seeds on the outside. Many people eat strawberries on ice cream, or dip them in sugar. Strawberries are rich in vitamin C which may help one fight off colds. Many strawberries are grown on strawberry farms and the farmers often have hives of bees that live on the farm to pollinate the strawberries. Strawberries are technically aggregate fruits, containing more than one fruit. They are swollen stems/accessory fruit. Seeds (the achenes) are the true fruit.
A tangerine is a type of fruit. It is related to the orange, but it is smaller and easier to peel.
Rice is a tall, grasslike plant that grows in very moist environments, usually found along rivers. Wild rice is best harvested from canoes. Rice is normally grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 20 years. The seeds of the rice plant are to be milled using a rice huller to remove the chaff (the outer husks of the grain). At this point in the process, the product is called brown rice. The milling may be continued, removing the 'bran', i.e., the rest of the husk and the germ, thereby creating white rice. White rice, which keeps longer, lacks some important nutrients; in a limited diet which does not supplement the rice, brown rice helps to prevent the disease beriberi. One may also parboil the rice. Parboiled rice is subjected to a steaming or parboiling process while still a brown rice. This causes nutrients from the outer husk, especially thiamine, to move into the grain itself. The parboil process causes a gelatinization of the starch in the grains. The grains become less brittle, and the color of the milled grain changes from white to yellow. The rice is then dried, and can then be milled as usual or used as brown rice. Milled parboiled rice is nutritionally superior to standard milled rice. Parboiled rice has an additional benefit in that it does not stick to the pan during cooking, as happens when cooking regular white rice.
 Job's tears, Coixseed, Adlay, Adlai(edible)
Coixseed is a tall, grain-bearing tropical plant with grasslike leaves. Its primary use is as a drink, whether powdered, boiled, or fermented into alcohol. It has a pleasant sweet flavor, and can also be made into a vinegar.
 Green Ramie(textile)
Green Ramie is a herbaceous perennial growing to 1–2.5 m tall; the leaves are heart-shaped, 7–15 cm long and 6–12 cm broad, and green on the underside with dense small hairs—this gives it a silvery appearance; unlike nettles, the hairs do not sting. The part used is the bark of the vegetative stalks; stems are decorticated while the plants are fresh. If this is not done while the plants are still fresh, the plants will dry out and the bark will be hard to remove. The bark ribbon is dried as quickly as possible; this prevents bacteria and fungi from attacking it. The extraction of the fiber occurs in three stages. First the cortex or bark is removed; this can be done by hand. Second, the cortex is scraped to remove most of the outer bark, the parenchyma in the bast layer and some of the gums and pectins. Finally the residual cortex material is washed, dried, and de-gummed to extract the spinnable fiber.
Ramie is one of the strongest natural fibers, and exhibits even greater strength when wet. Ramie fiber is known especially for its ability to hold shape, reduce wrinkling, and introduce a silky lustre to the fabric appearance. It is not as durable as other fibers, and so is usually used as a blend with other fibers such as cotton or wool, however, it will not dye as well as cotton. It is similar to flax in absorbency, density and microscopic appearance. Because of its high molecular crystallinity, ramie is stiff and brittle and will break if folded repeatedly in the same place; it lacks resiliency and is low in elasticity and elongation potential.
 Coconut Palm(multi-use)
The coconut palm is a large palm, growing to 30 m tall, with pinnate leaves 4–6 m long, pinnae 60–90 cm long; old leaves break away cleanly leaving the trunk smooth. Virtually every part of the coconut palm has some human uses, and the palms have a comparatively high yield, up to 75 fruits per year.
- The nut provides oil for cooking and making margarine.
- The white, fleshy part of the seed, the coconut meat, is edible and used fresh or dried in cooking.
- The cavity is filled with coconut water which contains sugar, fiber, proteins, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. Coconut water provides an isotonic electrolyte balance, and is a highly nutritious food source. It is used as a refreshing drink throughout the humid tropics and is also used in isotonic sports drinks. It can also be used to make the gelatinous dessert nata de coco. Mature fruits have significantly less liquid than young immature coconuts; barring spoilage, coconut water is sterile until opened.
- Coconut milk is made by processing grated coconut with hot water or milk, which extracts the oil and aromatic compounds. It should not be confused with coconut water, and has a higher fat content. When refrigerated and left to set, coconut cream will rise to the top and separate from the milk. The milk is used to produce virgin coconut oil by controlled heating and removing the oil fraction. Virgin coconut oil is found superior to the oil extracted from copra for cosmetic purposes.
- The leftover fiber from coconut milk production is used as livestock feed.
- The sap derived from incising the flower clusters of the coconut is drunk as neera, or fermented to produce palm wine, also known as "toddy" or, in the Philippines, tuba. The sap can be reduced by boiling to create a sweet syrup or candy, too.
- Apical buds of adult plants are edible, and are known as "palm-cabbage" or heart-of-palm. They are considered a rare delicacy, as the act of harvesting the buds kills the palms. Hearts of palm are eaten in salads, sometimes called "millionaire's salad".
- Coconut nectar is an extract from the young bud, a very rare type of nectar collected and used as morning break drink in the islands of Maldives, and is reputed to have energetic power, keeping the "raamen" (nectar collector) healthy and fit even over 80 or 90 years old. A by-product, a sweet honey-like syrup called dhiyaa hakuru is used as a creamy sugar for desserts.
- Newly germinated coconuts contain an edible fluff of marshmallow-like consistency called coconut sprout, produced as the endosperm nourishes the developing embryo.
- In the Philippines, rice is wrapped in coco leaves for cooking and subsequent storage; these packets are called puso.
- Coir (the fiber from the husk of the coconut) is used in ropes, mats, brushes, caulking boats and as stuffing fiber; it is also used extensively in horticulture for making potting compost.
- Copra is the dried meat of the seed and, after further processing, is a source of low grade coconut oil.
- Coconut leaves can be used for making brooms.
- Coir can be used for making mattresses.
- The leaves provide materials for baskets and roofing thatch.
- Palmwood comes from the trunk, and has several applications, particularly in furniture and specialized construction.
- Hawaiians hollowed the trunk to form drums, containers, or even small canoes.
- The husk and shells can be used for fuel and are a good source of charcoal.
- Dried half coconut shells with husks are used to buff floors.
- Activated carbon manufactured from coconut shell is considered superior to those obtained from other sources, mainly because of small macropores structure which renders it more effective for the adsorption of gas/vapor and for the removal of color, oxidants, impurities and odor of compounds.
- Shirt buttons can be carved out of dried coconut shell.
- The stiff leaflet midribs can be used to make cooking skewers, kindling arrows, or are bound into bundles, brooms and brushes.
- The roots are used as a dye, a mouthwash, and a medicine for dysentery. A frayed-out piece of root can also be used as a toothbrush.
- One can make a rug from coconut fiber
- The leaves can be woven to create effective roofing materials, or reed mats.
- Dried coconut leaves can be burned to ash, which can be harvested for lime.
- Dried half coconut shells are used as the bodies of musical instruments.
- Coconut is also commonly used as a traditional remedy in Pakistan to treat bites from rats.
- The "branches" (leaf petioles) are strong and flexible enough to make a switch. The use of coconut branches in corporal punishment was revived in the Gilbertese community on Choiseul in the Solomon Islands in 2005.
- In a jam, one can inscribe a message on the inside of a coconut husk.
- Coconut trunks are used for building small bridges; they are preferred for their straightness, strength and salt resistance. Coconut trunks can also be also used for house construction.
- Coconut nuts are used to make soap.
- Leaves can be woven together into a basket that could be used for drawing water from a well.
- The dried Calyx of the coconut is used as fuel in wood fired stoves.
- The fresh husk of a brown coconut is also used as a dish sponge or as a body sponge.
- The mid-rib of the coconut leaf can be used as a tongue-cleaner.
Corchorus is a genus plant of about 40-100 species of flowering plants in the family Malvaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. Different common names are used in different contexts, with jute applying to the fibre produced from the plant, and Mallow-Leaves Mulukhiyah applied to the leaves used as a vegetable. It has a mucilaginous (somewhat "slimy") texture, similar to okra, when cooked. The seeds are used as a flavouring, and a herbal tea is made from the dried leaves. It is very important not to allow the malukhiyah to boil as it coagulates and becomes inedible. The plant also produces a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. The fabric made from jute is popularly known as burlap in North America.
 Sea Grape, Hopwood, Horsewood -- Cocoloba Uvifera(multi-use)
Sea Grapes can grow into trees up to 40 ft., but generally stay small trees or large shrubs. Leaves are thick and heart-shaped, ranging from 3 to 10 inches. New foliage is smooth and brown or bronze in color, and flowers grow in clusters. The fruits resemble grapes, and are dark red or purple, ripening throughout the summer. Found amongst sandy dunes and coastal areas, the most common uses are are for food and wood; the wood is great for carving. The most common way to eat seagrapes is like all other grapes; rinse them off and pop them in your mouth.
 Live Oak(multi-use)
A common site on the island Live oaks are notable for their large curving branches, deep furrowed bark and Numerous acorns. Their leaves are long and oval shaped as well as moderately thick as far as leafs go. The long branches can be trimmed easily to shape the trees growth and also can be used for curved lumber sections or firewood. The acorns off the tree are a prized commodity due to the presence of tannin and also for a food stuff in the form of flour and mash. Needless to say this tree may very well prove to be the backbone of a new civilization.
A large pseudotree, the papaya grows up to around five or ten meters in height with a spiral leaf pattern(each leaf consisting of seven lobes and a palmate shape). the leaves only grow upon the crown of the plant and that bark is heavily scarred from previous growth cycles. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the Plumeria but are much smaller and wax like. They appear on the axils of the leaves, maturing into the large 15-45 cm long, 10-30 cm diameter fruit. The fruit is ripe when it feels soft (like a ripe avocado or a bit softer) and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. The fruit's taste is vaguely similar to pineapple and peach, although much milder without the tartness. This tree is once more a precious multi use plant. The high pectin levels allow for it to be turned into jelly and preserves and if treated properly it can be used to create a potent topical jell that can be used on burns and cuts. The seeds are edible and can be used for spices and the young leaves are useful as a green source. It should be noted that large quantities of unripe papaya might lead to issues with conception in men and women. It should also be noted that the bark is handy for rope production.
 Nippa Palm(multiuse)
The Nipa palm has a horizontal trunk that grows beneath the ground and only the leaves and flower stalk grow upwards above the surface. Thus, it is an unusual tree, and the leaves can extend up to 9 m (30 ft) in height. The flowers are a globular inflorescence of female flowers at the tip with catkin-like red or yellow male flowers on the lower branches. The flower yields a woody nut, these arranged in a cluster compressed into a ball up to 25 cm (10 in) across on a single stalk. The ripe nuts separate from the ball and are floated away on the tide, occasionally germinating while still water-borne. Nipa palms grow in soft mud and slow moving tidal and river waters that bring in nutrients. The palm can be found as far inland as the tide can deposit the floating nuts. It is common on coasts and rivers. Its uses are extremely numerous, the leaves are a proven thatch material being easily woven together, the flower cluster (inflorescence) can be tapped before it blooms to yield a sweet, edible sap collected to produce a local alcoholic beverage called Tuba. If stored in the proper vessel this alcohol can be used to create vinegar a most useful compound. Young shoots are also edible and the flower petals can be infused to make an aromatic tisane. Attap chee ("chee" meaning "seed" in several Chinese dialects) is a name for the immature fruits -- sweet, translucent, gelatinous balls used as a dessert ingredient. The young leaves are used to wrap tobacco for smoking. Large stems are used to train swimming thanks to their buoyant nature. And finally Nipah has a very high sugar-rich sap yield. Fermented into ethanol.
 Chir Pine(multiuse)
It is a large tree, reaching 30-50 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 2 m, exceptionally 3 m. The bark is red-brown, thick and deeply fissured at the base of the trunk, thinner and flaky in the upper crown. The leaves are needle-like, in fascicles of three, very slender, 20-35 cm long, and distinctly yellowish green. The cones are ovoid conic, 12-24 cm long and 5-8 cm broad at the base when closed, green at first, ripening glossy chestnut-brown when 24 months old. They open slowly over the next year or so, or after being heated by a forest fire, to release the seeds, opening to 9-18 cm broad. The seeds are 8-9 mm long, with a 40 mm wing, and are wind-dispersed Uses: tapped for resin. On distillation, the resin yields an essential oil, commonly known as turpentine, and non-volatile rosin. The proportion of rosin and turpentine oil in Chir Pine is 75% and 22% respectively with 3% losses, etc. bark can be broken off and carved or for use in blacksmith furnaces when fully matured. Dead tree timber never gets waterlogged due to resin crystalisation and burns for long periods of time. Timber is not suitable for building materiel.
 Black Tupelo(multiuse)
The leaf of Black Tupelo is variable in size and shape. It can be oval, elliptical or obovate, and 5-12 cm (2-5 in) long. It is lustrous, with entire, often wavy margins. The leaf turns purple in autumn, eventually becoming an intense bright scarlet. The flower is very small, greenish-white in clusters at the top of a long stalk. The fruit is a black-blue, ovoid stone fruit, about 10 mm long with a thin, oily, bitter-to-sour flesh. There are from one to three such fruit together on a long slender stalk. The bark is dark grey and flaky when young, but it becomes furrowed with age, resembling alligator hide on very old stems. The twigs of this tree are reddish-brown, usually hidden by a greyish skin. The pith is chambered with greenish partitions. The branches typically stand at right angles to the trunk. Uses: The wood is hard, cross-grained, and difficult to split, especially after drying. It is used for pallets, rough floors, pulpwood and firewood.
 Tamarack Larch(multiuse)
It is a small to medium-size deciduous coniferous tree reaching 10-20 m tall, with a trunk up to 60 cm diameter. The bark is tight and flaky, brown, but under flaking bark it can appear reddish. The leaves are needle-like, 2-3 cm long, light blue-green, turning bright yellow before they fall in autumn, leaving the pale pinkish-brown shoots bare until the next spring. The needles are produced spirally on long shoots and in dense clusters on short woody spur shoots. The cones are the smallest of any larch, only 1-2.3 cm long, with 12-25 seed scales; they are bright red, turning brown and opening to release the seeds when mature, 4–6 months after pollination. Uses: the wood is tough and durable, but also flexible in thin strips, and can be used for making products where toughness was required. This wood is highly rot resistant and also does not rot fast in water. The natural crooks located in the stumps and roots are also preferred for creating knees in wooden boats. The inner bark has also been used as a poultice to treat cuts, infected wounds, frostbite, boils and hemorrhoids. The outer bark and roots are also said to have been used with another plant as a treatment for arthritis, cold and general aches and pains. Tamarack is only found in the highlands of the island due to its alpine nature.
Millets are a hardy, versatile, group of small-grained cereal crops that occur in both wild and domesticated varieties. In general, millets are very nutritious and easy to grow, even in poor soils or drought conditions. The types occurring on the island are Black and White fonio, which mature in six to eight weeks, Foxtail Millet, which matures in 10 to 12 weeks. Fonio is a thin-leafed grass-like plant, growing to a height of three or four feet. Foxtail Millet, though still grass-like, has thicker leaves, and grows to between 3 and 6 feet tall. The grain from these plants can, after hulling, be ground into flour for flatbreads or eaten as porridge. It is good to add to soups and stews, but even better for fermenting and brewing into beer. Millet can also be used as an animal feed and a filling for beanbag chairs.
 Amaranth, Pigweed(multiuse)
Amaranths are a cosmopolitan genus of herbs. Approximately 60 species are recognized, with inflorescences and foliage ranging from purple and red to gold. Often considered weeds, people around the world value amaranths as leaf vegetables, cereals, and ornamentals. Both the leaves and seeds of Amaranths are edible, and in fact very palatable. The seeds are called "quinoa", and are used like a grain. The flowers make a fine, deep, red dye. The plant is also noted for growing handsome, drooping spikes of red or purple flowers, and it makes an attractive addition to ornamental gardens.
 Wild carrot, Queen Anne's lace(multiuse)
Very similar in appearance to the deadly Water Hemlock, Daucus carota is distinguished by a mix of bi-pinnate and tri-pinnate leaves, fine hairs on its stems and leaves, a root that smells like carrots, and occasionally a single dark red flower in its center. Wild carrot should be handled with care, as its leaves can cause hypersensitivity to ultraviolet light. Like the cultivated carrot, the wild carrot root is edible while young, but quickly becomes too woody to consume. A teaspoon of crushed seeds has long been used as a form of birth control; its seeds block progesterone synthesis, and can interrupt implantation.
Bamboo is a woody, fast growing, evergreen grass that grows like a tree. Bamboo is a durable building material when harvested at the end of the dry season, and new shoots are edible in all species but the Giant Bamboo. The shoots of the giant bamboo contain cyanide, and eating them will kill you. Shoots of all other species can be eaten fresh, pickled, or fermented. Bamboo can be processed like flax or hemp to produce a product that can be worked into paper or spun into thread and made into clothing. Bamboo is also easily used to make musical instruments.
Arrowroot is a low growing plant with variegated leaves, deep green and yellow-white in color. Arrowroot tubers contain starch. They are first washed, then cleaned of the paper-like scale, washed again, drained and finally reduced to a pulp by beating them in mortars or subjecting them to the action of the wheel-rasp. The resulting milky liquid is passed through a coarse cloth or hair sieve and the pure starch, which is insoluble, is allowed to settle at the bottom. The wet starch is dried in the sun or in a drying house and the result is a powdered starch that can be added to all sorts of things to thicken them. Arrowroot can also be used to make paper, and can supposedly draw poison out of wounds if applied quickly.
Flax is an erect annual plant growing to 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) tall, with slender stems. The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20–40 mm long and 3 mm broad. The flowers are pure pale blue, 15–25 mm diameter, with five petals; they can also be bright red. The fruit is a round, dry capsule 5–9 mm diameter, containing several glossy brown seeds shaped like an apple pip, 4–7 mm long. Various parts of the plant have been used to make fabric, dye, paper, medicines, fishing nets, hair gels and soap.
This tall, robust, leafless aquatic plant can grow 4 to 5 m (13 to 16 ft) high. It forms a grass-like clump of triangular green stems that rise up from thick, woody rhizomes. Each stem is topped by a dense cluster of thin, bright green, thread-like stems around 10 to 30 cm (4 to 10 in) in length, resembling a feather duster when the plant is young. Greenish-brown flower clusters eventually appear at the ends of the rays, giving way to brown, nut-like fruits. Papyrus is a versatile plant. It can be used to make paper, the woody roots can be made into bowls and eating utensils, and the buoyant stalks can be woven into boats. The pith of young shoots can be eaten, and the stalks can be woven into sails, rope, cloth, cords mats, and sandals.
 Slash Pine(Timber)
This tree reaches heights of 18–30 m (59–98 ft) with a trunk diameter of 0.6–0.8 m (2.0–2.6 ft). The leaves are needle-like, very slender, in clusters of two or three, and are 18–24 cm (7.1–9.4 in) long. The cones are glossy red-brown, 5–15 cm (2.0–5.9 in) in length with a short (2–3 mm/0.079–0.12 in), thick prickle on each scale. It is known for its conical shape. Slash pine is a precious source of resin. A common harvest technique it to gouge a portion of the tree and let the material flow freely onto or into a container. This resin is a potent material and can be used to create naval stores, water tight seals and turpentine.
 Chinese swamp Cypress(Timber)
It is a medium-sized to large tree, reaching 30 m (98 ft) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1 m (3.3 ft), possibly more. The leaves are deciduous, spirally arranged but twisted at the base to lie in two horizontal ranks, 5–20 mm (0.20–0.79 in) long and 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) broad, but 2–3 mm (0.079–0.12 in) long and scale-like on shoots in the upper crown. The cones are green maturing yellow-brown, pear-shaped, 2–3 cm (0.79–1.2 in) long and 1–1.5 cm (0.39–0.59 in) diameter, broadest near the apex. They open when mature to release the small, 5–20 mm (0.20–0.79 in) long, winged seeds.
 Smooth tree ferns(timber)
Reported to reach 20 m or more in height. The broad, lance shaped, bipinnate-pinnatifid to tripinnate fronds can reach 5 m in length. Stipe is long and has a line of white, stitch like dashes along its length. Rachis and stipe are covered in white-brown and darker orange-brown scales. The trunk can become smooth with age and may display oval scars left from fallen fronds.
It has been suggested that the various professions of the New World's population be represented by patron gods, who are accepted to not actually exist, but serve roughly the same purpose as mascots.
God of maps, the cardinal directions, exploration, pathfinding, and, of course, navigation. Patron of sailors, scouts, and explorers of all kinds. Those of exceptional skill in the Navigator's Art are said to be blessed with the third eye, which sees all paths. Followers of the navigator often have undergone rigorous training and ritual mutilation. Depending on the sect this can range from simple scarring made to look like a third eye, to such grotesque physical changes as intricate scarring of various prayers upon their forms.
Common rituals at a Navigator temple are things such as offerings of fruits, meats and dice to the local effigy of the God, An hour of prayer as priests like incense said to increase a persons second sight and warding from the various dangers that lurk around them.
 The Castellan
God of strategy and tactics. Patron of commanders in all military branches. His power is said to be invoked by calling on him three times, each louder than the last. The Castellan only assists the righteous, the protectors of the weak. Those who commit atrocities secure only his ire.
God of rage and personal sacrifice. Patron of the first to charge and the first to lose their temper. His power is signified by the emblem of the glaring smiley, and by righteous anger. Those who follow Fuklaw are those who will lay down their lives to see justice done.
 Leman Russ
God of the harvest, wisdom, and strength. Patron of the farmers, the philosophers, and those who test their muscles in pitched combat with the horrors of this world. His power is exemplified by the cunning and deadly wolf, and admired by those who likewise admire earthly predators. The followers of Leman of Russ are often down-to-earth, blue-collar types who have a strange penchant for generating quotes that reveal their strength of mind to match their strength of body.
don't go to these they don't work anymore