Cleric

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Aleena the cleric in depressingly tasteful chainmail

In D&D, the cleric is a healer, spellcaster, and sometimes melee fighter. It is a fantasy reimagining of the holy orders of the Knights Templar and Hospitaller of medieval times.

First Edition

In 1st edition AD&D, the cleric could wear heavy armor and use a shield. He was forbidden to use weapons that were not blunt, with the only missile weapons being the very feeble sling or the bizarre staff-sling. The cleric wore a holy symbol, which he could use to turn away or destroy undead creatures. He could cast spells to mend wounds and cure ailments. He also had spells to protect and buff up the party, some spells to afflict opponents, and some utility spells. The cleric didn't get a lot of ranged attack spells, the exception being the very overpowered Flamestrike. Many of the 1st edition cleric spells were patterned after legendary religious miracles. His excellent armor, good saving throws, and fair hit points made the cleric a decent front-line battle healer. In spite of, or rather because of this, most players didn't want to play a cleric, because most of the time he was the only means of healing, and so he became nothing but a walking first aid kit.

Second Edition

In 2nd edition AD&D, "hybrid" healer classes became more interesting to play. The druid class became more powerful. Several granted powers were added, including the ability to shapeshift into animals. With ranged and powerful attack spells like Fire Seeds, Call Lightning, and The Creeping Doom, the druid could be more exciting to play than the cleric. If you wanted to focus on the undead-battling aspect of the cleric, you could also play a paladin, who had obtained a few upgrades and whose healing was absolutely feeble. 2nd edition also released optional rules for "Priests of Special Mythoi", which allowed you to handpick your spells and new, otherwise unattainable buffs, right from the Players Handbook. By using the rules in the Dungeon Master's Guide for creating a new character class, a player could create a lean but tough priest of a special mythos that advanced in level at a decent pace. In contrast, the cleric only received a buff common to all priests, extra "bonus" spells per day for having a high Wisdom score. Many players chose to play one of those other classes, where their combat clout or attack spells let them be somebody, instead of suffering the insult of being thought of as a reusable healing potion owned by everyone else in the party.

Third Edition

In 3rd edition, a druid can turn into a giant overpowered bear that shoots giant bears out of its eyes while farting lightning and mauling things with its own pet grizzly bear, also overpowered. A cleric can blow all the non-fullcaster members of the party away by self-buffing his stats (to the point where a single hit from his mace will hit with the fury of an angry god's fist) while shooting meta-magicked unresistible fire out of his eyes. They are awesome. Most of the 3rd edition spells were in the 2nd edition spellbook, but there were limitations that made the cleric more of a curiosity than a decent party contributor. But in 3rd edition, if you don't have a cleric or druid in your group, your group tends to die. See: CoDzilla.

Pathfinder

Pathfinder reigned them in some, and they're now mostly on-par with the other casters if a little more melee-capable than the average wizard. They still get domain powers, but turn undead is now channel energy, which basically lets them heal living creatures and hurt undead in a big radius with positive energy, or vice-versa with negative energy, making them superior healers to almost every other class at every stage of the game. They can also learn to channel those channels into other buffs and benefits too or burn them for single-target damage. They are still awesome.

Fourth Edition

The 4th edition designers, driven mad by the pant-shitting idiocy of the common gaming group, threw up their hands and gave every class pathetic healing. This took some of the healing pressure off the cleric. They intended for clerics to fill a "leader" role. You can create a Strength-based "battle" build character, who deals radiant melee damage. Or, you can create a back-row "devoted" healer build, who can buff and make ranged radiant attacks. They are also able to attack with the at-will power Lance of Faith, creating the Laser Cleric.

It was pretty skub.

Fifth Edition

In 5th edition, they realized that clerics were primarily divine spellcasters the way wizards were primarily arcane spellcasters and decided to throw the clerics some firepower at lower levels, even adding a domain called the Light domain that turns the cleric into a laser-beam-firing machine of death and radiant damage. They also used a nerf bat to break the kneecaps of all the buff spells, making them much less OP (and therefore less aggravating) than they were in 3.5. The end result is clerics that can do whatever they want, thanks to Domains actually doing something now, from healing-focused to investigation-focused to I-wish-I-was-a-druid focused. Oh, and they can use a "channel divinity" class feature with their domain to do cool things now.

Dungeons & Dragons 3rd Edition Classes
Player's Handbook: Barbarian - Bard - Cleric - Druid - Fighter - Monk
Paladin - Ranger - Rogue - Sorcerer - Wizard
Player's Handbook II: Beguiler - Dragon Shaman - Duskblade - Knight
Complete Adventurer: Ninja - Scout - Spellthief
Complete Arcane: Warlock - Warmage - Wu jen
Complete Divine: Favored Soul - Shugenja - Spirit Shaman
Complete Psionic: Ardent - Divine Mind - Erudite - Lurk
Complete Warrior: Hexblade - Samurai - Swashbuckler
Dragon Compendium: Battle Dancer - Death Master - Jester
Mounteback - Savant - Sha'ir - Urban Druid
Dragon Magazine: Sha'ir - Deathwalker - Fleshcrafter - Soul Reaper
Dragon Magic: Dragonfire Adept
Dungeonscape: Factotum
Heroes of Horror: Archivist - Dread Necromancer
Magic of Incarnum: Incarnate - Soulborn - Totemist
Miniatures Handbook: Favored Soul - Healer - Marshal - Warmage
Oriental Adventures: Samurai - Shaman - Shugenja - Sohei - Wu jen
Psionics Handbook: Psion - Psychic Warrior - Soulknife - Wilder
Tome of Battle: Crusader - Swordsage - Warblade
Tome of Magic: Binder - Shadowcaster - Truenamer
Class-related things: Favored Class - Gestalt character
Multiclassing - Prestige classes - Variant Classes
Dungeons & Dragons 4th Edition Classes
Player's Handbook 1: Cleric - Fighter - Paladin - Ranger - Rogue - Warlock - Warlord - Wizard
Player's Handbook 2: Avenger - Barbarian - Bard - Druid - Invoker - Shaman - Sorcerer - Warden
Player's Handbook 3: Ardent - Battlemind - Monk - Psion - Runepriest - Seeker
Heroes of X: Blackguard - Binder - Elementalist - Hexblade - Sha'ir - Vampire - Witch
Settings Book: Artificer - Swordmage
Dragon Magazine: Assassin
Others: Paragon Path - Epic Destiny
Dungeons & Dragons 5th Edition Classes
Player's
Handbook:
Barbarian - Bard - Cleric - Druid - Fighter - Monk
Paladin - Ranger - Rogue - Sorcerer - Warlock - Wizard
Unearthed
Arcana:
Artificer - Mystic
The Classes of Pathfinder
Core Classes: Barbarian - Bard - Cleric - Druid - Fighter - Monk
Paladin - Ranger - Rogue - Sorcerer - Wizard
Advanced
Class Guide:
Arcanist - Bloodrager - Brawler - Hunter - Investigator
Shaman - Skald - Slayer - Swashbuckler - Warpriest
Advanced
Player's Guide:
Alchemist - Antipaladin - Cavalier
Inquisitor - Oracle - Summoner - Witch
Occult Adventures: Kineticist - Medium - Mesmerist
Occultist - Psychic - Spiritualist
Ultimate Combat: Gunslinger - Ninja - Samurai
Ultimate Magic: Magus
Ultimate Psionics:
(3rd party)
Aegis - Cryptic - Dread - Marksman - Psion
Psychic Warrior - Soulknife - Tactician - Vitalist - Wilder
Path of War: (3rd party) Stalker - Warder - Warlord