From 1d4chan

The Judged are a group of 30 Space Marine Chapters who were judged as impure by the false Saint Basillius the Elder and sentenced to undertake the Abyssal Crusade, a redemptive crusade into the very heart of the Eye of Terror. Of the thirty who went in, only one escaped with its purity intact, the others paying the ultimate price for their transgressions into the center of Chaos' power. All of them have really cool names, too. Dammit, GW! Although, their Warband names are pretty awesome, too.

That said, since mutation was rampant but not universal and only some of the Doom Legion participated, it's possible that not all members of each Chapter participated in the Abyssal Crusade. The Imperium certainly would have wanted to keep as many Marines as possible from going into the Eye of Terror (so long as it doesn't require the Inquisition to do its job and actually check them for heresy).

The thirty Chapters known as the Judged, and their ultimate fates, are as follows:

Vorpal Swords: Escaped alive and untainted from the depths of the Eye, bearing vital information that allowed them to topple the false Saint Basillius and exact some measure of vengeance for his corruption. The only Judged chapter that survived uncorrupted.

Blades Eternal: Designation is marked as "Pending"; presumably, it's still unclear whether they have perished, fallen to Chaos or may even be continuing to fight their doomed Crusade.

Fists of Olchis: Designation is marked as "Perditas". Note that they are referenced in IA:2 Second Edition: the Red Talons apparently nearly completely purged them after they fell, along with the Argent Hammers. Apparently, they were known as "Outcast Chapters".

Chorus of Eltain: Sacrificed their existence to the last, remaining loyal to the Imperium, earning the designation "Martyr Extremis".

Prophets of Mercury: Sacrificed their existence to the last, remaining loyal to the Imperium, earning the designation "Martyr Extremis".

Iron Drakes: Invaded the Nurgle Daemon World of Anathrax, where the combination of the resident toxic fungus-forests and an ambush by resident Plague Marines saw half of the Chapter consumed by the foul spores and twisted into a grotesque living death, dismaying the survivors to the point where they threw down their arms and pledged their souls to the Plague-Father. Don't pity them, they invaded a fucking Plague World. There's a reason Astartes don't even board Plague Ships, let alone Plague Worlds. The Nurglite Renegade Marines are now designated the Grey Death.

Sentinels: Invaded the Slaanesh Daemon World of Oliensis, which devoured them -- literally, for it was a planet of living flesh and bone. When Oliensis regurgitated them, they have been twisted into the deranged, cannibalistic Slaanesh-worshiping Renegades known as the Corpus Brethren.

Knights Excelsior: Led a doomed invasion of the mechanical Daemon World of Temporia, residence of the Warpsmith Valdrak of the Magma Hounds and his armies of Daemon Engines. Those Knights Excelsior who were captured alive were forcibly indoctrinated into joining Valdrak's band of renegades, doubling the heretic forces.

Brothers of the Anvil: During their scouring of the Crone World of Belial IV, this Chapter was captured by Dark Eldar and dragged into Commorragh to be fodder for the arenas. A year later, the survivors fought their way back into realspace, so deranged and shattered that they have since done nothing more than kill anything and everything they encounter, earning the name of Deathmongers. This warband would go on to fight the Angels Revenant during the Orphean War of Faith. And yes, Dark Eldar being in the Eye of Terror is indeed impossible as their souls have no protection from Slaanesh and are even drained in the Webway.

Lectors of Ixis: Fell to Chaos, now renamed Oracles of Change.

Invictors: Fell to Chaos, now renamed The Unhallowed.

Lionguard: Fell to Chaos, now renamed Death Shadows.

Graven Fists: Fell to Chaos, now renamed Twisted Blades.

Lances of Pteros: Fell to Chaos, now renamed Lords of Decay. Somewhat notable for being actually fleshed out: after they were corrupted, the Death Guard absorbed them and converted the warband into an elite force among the legion. As in, 'Mortarion and Typhus have been seen leading them' kind of elite. They also showed up at Vraks to spread love and smiles in Papa Nurgle's name.

Sigilites: Fell to Chaos, now renamed Malefactors. Not to confused with Malcador, his title has two L's ("Sigillite").

Viridian Consuls: Fell to Chaos, now renamed The Broken. Also very thoroughly dead, having been wiped out to the last and their Daemon Prince leader banished by Marneus Calgar and the Ultramarines.

Altar Brethren: Fell to Chaos, now renamed Iconoclasts. Notable mainly for their seething hatred of Shrine Worlds and Ecclesiarchy priests.

Vengeance Chapter: Fell to Chaos, now renamed The Flylords.

Tempest Legion: Fell to Chaos, now renamed The Revelation of Gore.

Bronze Gorgons: Fell to Chaos, now renamed Crystal Wyverns.

Argent Hammers: Fell to Chaos, now renamed Talons of Anathrax. Note that they are referenced in IA:2 second edition: the Red Talons apparently nearly completely purged them after they fell, along with the Fists of Olchis. Apparently, they were known as "Outcast Chapters".

Illustrians: Fell to Chaos, now renamed The Black Psalm.

Doom Legion: Fell to Chaos... sort of. Four entire companies of this Chapter did not take part in the Abyssal Crusade and remained loyal, though the Inquisition promptly went full paranoia mode and barely held back from purging their asses in favour of demanding they prove their purity (despite that being, y'know, the job of the fucking Inquisition). The fallen members of the chapter became the Vectors of Pox.

Serpents of Light: Fell to Chaos, now renamed Predator Legion.

Spears of Olympus: Fell to Chaos, now renamed Bloodlords.

Clerics of Steel: Fell to Chaos, now renamed Invocators. Have become since then a rag-tag of minor warbands who specialize in summoning Demons. Their colour scheme and symbol are pretty cool, at least.

Star Gryphons: Fell to Chaos, now renamed Sons of Midnight.

Justicars: Fell to Chaos, now renamed The Fractured.

Sanctors of Terra: Fell to Chaos, now renamed The Blighted Claw.

Crusaders of Dorn: Fell to Chaos, now renamed Brotherhood of Lethe.

Chapters of the Adeptus Astartes
First Founding
Blood Angels - Dark Angels - Imperial Fists
Iron Hands - Raven Guard - Salamanders
Space Wolves - Ultramarines - White Scars
Second Founding
Angels of Absolution - Angels Encarmine - Angels Porphyr
Angels of Redemption - Angels Sanguine - Angels of Vengeance
Angels Vermillion - Aurora Chapter - Black Consuls
Black Guard - Black Templars - Blood Drinkers
Brazen Claws - Crimson Fists - Destroyers
Doom Eagles - Eagle Warriors - Excoriators
Fists Exemplar - Flesh Tearers - Genesis Chapter
Inceptors - Iron Snakes - Libators
Lions Sable - Marauders - Mortifactors
Nemesis - Novamarines - Obsidian Glaives
Patriarchs of Ulixis - Purple Stars - Praetors of Orpheus
Rampagers - Raptors - Red Talons
Revilers - Silver Eagles - Silver Skulls
Soul Drinkers - Storm Lords - White Consuls
Wolf Brothers
Third to
Twelfth Founding
Astral Claws - Angels Revenant - Charnel Guard
Dark Paladins - Executioners - Flesh Eaters
Halo Brethren - Howling Griffons - Iron Knights
Mantis Warriors - Marines Malevolent - Night Swords
Sable Swords (initial) - Scythes of the Emperor - Space Sharks
Sons of Guilliman
Thirteenth Founding
Death Spectres - Exorcists
Fourteenth to
Twentieth Founding:
Angels of Fire - Avenging Sons - Celebrants
Twenty-First Founding
Black Dragons - Blood Gorgons - Fire Hawks
Flame Falcons - Lamenters - Minotaurs
Sons of Antaeus - Tiger Claws
Twenty-Second to
Twenty-Sixth Founding
Angels of Vigilance - Celestial Lions - Dark Hunters
Disciples of Caliban - Emperor's Spears - Fire Angels
Imperial Harbingers - Iron Lords - Knights of the Raven
Marines Errant - Mentors - Fire Claws/Relictors
Star Phantoms - Subjugators
Ultima Founding
Angels of Defiance - Black Vipers - Blades of Vengeance
Castellans of the Rift - Fulminators - Knights Cerulean
Knights of the Chalice - Knights of Thunder - Necropolis Hawks
Nemesors - Praetors of Ultramar - Rift Stalkers
Silver Drakes - Silver Templars - Sons of the Phoenix
Storm Reapers - Umbral Knights - Unnumbered Sons
Valiant Blades - Void Tridents - Wolfspear
Unknown Founding: Absolvers - Accipiters - Adulators
Angel Guard - Angels Eradicant - Angels of Retribution
Astral Knights - Blood Ravens - Blood Swords
Brazen Drakes - Brothers Penitent - Crimson Castellans
Crimson Consuls - Crimson Scythes - Dark Hands
Dark Sons - Death Eagles - Emperor's Shadows
Fire Lords - Guardians of the Covenant - Graven Spectres
Hammers of Dorn - Harbingers - Hawk Lords
Invaders - Iron Crusaders - Iron Talons
Jade Dragons - Knights of Blood - Knights Unyielding
Marines Exemplar - The Nameless - Night Watch
Rainbow Warriors - Reclaimers - Red Hunters
Red Scorpions - Red Seraphs - Red Templars
Retributors - Sable Swords (refounded) - Shadow Wolves
Solar Hawks - Sons of Orar - Star Dragons
Stormwatchers - Storm Giants - Storm Wardens
Valedictors - Viper Legion - Vorpal Swords
White Templars - Storm Wings
Unsanctioned Founding: Consecrators (founding unknown, but likely after 2nd Founding)
Sons of Medusa (separated from parent Chapters, ratified by edict)
Steel Confessors (de facto 22nd Founding, de jure ratified by edict)
Others: Astartes Praeses - Deathwatch - Grey Knights
The Traitor Legions and Warbands of Chaos
Alpha Legion - Black Legion - Death Guard
Emperor's Children - Iron Warriors - Night Lords
Thousand Sons - Word Bearers - World Eaters
Apostles of Contagion - Bloodborn - Broken Aquila
Foresworn - Plague Fleet - Prodigal Sons
The Consortium - Warband of Subsector Aurelia
Adharon's Reavers - Blood Gorgons - Company of Misery
Corpus Brethren - Crimson Slaughter - Deathmongers
Death Shadows - Invocators - Lords of Decay
Oracles of Change - Red Corsairs - Shriven
The Brazen Beasts - The Flawless Host - The Scourged
Skyrar's Dark Wolves - Steel Cobras - Voidrippers
Disciples of Destruction - Dragon Warriors - Extinction Angels
Punishers - The Cleaved - The Purge
The Pyre - Sons of Malice - Sons of Vengeance
The Reborn - Violators - Warp Ghosts - Bleak Brotherhood